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how are stained glass windows created?

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How Are Stained Glass Windows Created? Assessed homework One of the many uses of limestone is in the production of glass. Glass Ingredients * Silica (SiO2) - 60% quartz sand * Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) - 20% soda * Calcium Oxide (CaO) - 5% limestone * Magnesium Oxide (MgO) * Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) The Ingredients for Plain Glass Pure silica (SiO2) has a melting point of about 2,000� C; other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1,000� C. However, the soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide, CaO), some MgO and aluminum oxide are added to provide a better chemical durability. ...read more.


* Fluxes lower the temperature at which the formers will melt. Soda (Sodium carbonate) and Potash (Potassium carbonate), both alkalis, are common fluxes. Potash glass is slightly denser than soda glass. * Stabilizers make the glass strong and water resistant. Calcium carbonate, often called calcined limestone is a stabilizer. Without a stabilizer, water and humidity attack and dissolve glass. Glass lacking lime is often called "waterglass." Stained Glass Early glass derived its color from impurities that were present when the glass was formed. For example, 'black bottle glass' was a dark brown or green glass, first produced in 17th Century England. ...read more.


Compounds Colours iron oxides greens, browns manganese oxides deep amber, amethyst, decolourizer cobalt oxide deep blue gold chloride ruby red selenium compounds reds carbon oxides amber/brown mix of mangnese, cobalt, iron black antimony oxides white uranium oxides Yellow green (glows!) sulphur compounds amber/brown copper compounds light blue, red tin compounds white lead with antimony yellow These Compounds are added to the glass production to get certain colours used for a stained glass window... The small pieces of the stained glass are mounted to form mosaics and pictures held together by little strips of lead to form stained glass windows. There are many ancient and modern examples in churches and public buildings throughout the world. Especially churches in the United kingdom and France. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry 1 ...read more.

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