• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


Ishita patel 29.11.01 Chromosomes are the fine thread like structures found in the nucleus on which the genetic material of the cell is organised. Therefore we can imagine the extent of its importance in our body. They may be thought of as a package of many genes. A chromosome consists a tightly coiled length of DNA. The material from which they are made can be stained, chromatin, we are only able to see chromosomes during cell division. A chromosome is about 0.004 mm long and contains a single piece of DNA that is about 4 cm long. This is about 10 000 times longer than the chromosome. So it has to twist and coil to fit inside. We find chromosomes inside the nucleus of nearly all cells. The nuclei of human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. The information they carry has a strong influence over our personal characteristics. ...read more.


The number of chromosomes is always set for each speciss. They will varies from other organiosm , however with the particular species remain the same i.e humans have 46 chromosomes , however onion cell have only 16chromosomes. Other important feature that chromosomes share is that they copy them selves. During intephase the chromosomes ar busily replicating them selvees. It creates two identical structures called chromatid s. They will remain attached until anaphase. Chromosomes are very important because they carry out important instructions and hold essential and vital information. We know that the DNA holds the important information that code for protein. The total length of the DNA of the human chromosome sis over 2 meters, shared between the 4 6 chromosomes . It is important to know that the half the number of chromosomes in an orgainsim came from each parent. ...read more.


These can have different effects on the organism. This help to show just how important chromosomes, as they do hold all the genetic information. 1. Point mutation: Mutation of a single nucleotide pair or a very small part of a gene. 2. Deletion: The chromosome breaks in two places and a segment is missing when the breaks heal. 3. Translocation: Two chromosomes break at different points. When the deleted gene from one chromosome attaches to the other chromosome, chromosomes with more or fewer copies of normal genes result. Those mutations can have different consequences: 1. Lethal: cause the organism's death 2. Conditional: produce a phenotypic effect under certain conditions 3. Loss of function: reduce the activity of a gene Gain of function: increase the activity of a gene So overall we can state that the chromosomes are the most important organisms that exist in our body and that are so important that change in one of the base pair, in the e DNA it can change/effect the whole organisim. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    As the judgement is purely objective, it is difficult to fully improve this limitation. One method of improvement, however, is to obtain a number of separate, independent judgements made by a number of different people on cells of a troublesome nature.

  2. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    I then placed a 1 meter quadrat at the end of the tape nearest the sea, and recorded the height and width measurements of 4 Limpets nearest to the middle of the quadrat. * Using 2 30cm rulers I will accurately recorded the height of the Limpet by standing one

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    In this way the infant inherits its parents' genes. Although the genes for each trait are produced in pairs, the expression of the trait in the organism depends on how the two genes are combined. Some genes are dominant, while others are recessive.

  2. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    * Types of species found- The types of species found were pretty unaffected by the trampling, the t-test proved that the chances of species randomly being present there was very minimum and this shows not only the accuracy of results but also the fact that even though trampling has occurred

  1. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    The impellor method using the hydro-prop apparatus gave some degree of accuracy compared to other methods. This method can also be repeated many times over each section of the river. The stop watch minimises human errors. Dissolved oxygen concentration Oxygen meter Oxygen meter Same This will give the dissolved oxygen level of the water.

  2. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    are viruses that infect bacteria. They are an effective way of delivering large genes into bacteria cells in culture. * Adenoviruses are human viruses that causes respiratory diseases including the common cold. Their genetic material is double-stranded DNA, and they are ideal for delivering genes to living patients in gene therapy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work