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Cloning - arguments for and against

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Lagunova 1 ...[in 2000] almost 20,000 transplants were done in the USA (11,409 kidneys, 4,166 livers, 2,292 hearts and 942 lungs among them) and according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation in the world were transplanted 48,541 hearts and 11,608 lungs, saving 5% of related victims in USA, or a tiny 0,7% worldwide, meaning that transplantation, an anyhow unnatural practice which implants a strangers' organ into another body, is far away from solving the problem, being the lack of adequate donors the main reason [...], placing many thousands of patients of all kinds throughout the globe in a sort of indefinite and frightening "death row", circumstance that regrettably causes a number of deaths and serious injuries among hundreds of innocent people forcibly abducted to remove from them transplantable organs in order to supply an increasing unlawful market. (Vasquez) Successful therapeutic cloning of transplant organs can save lives of many people who otherwise die waiting in line for necessary transplants to be available due to some accident or disease. Also it will, for example, eliminate the demand for illegally obtained transplants such as in those cases when they are taken forcibly from abducted individuals. Therefore, I believe that therapeutic cloning can be justified due to its potential benefits for humanity in the means of creating transplants and treating incurable deceases, although nowadays cloning is widely regarded to be unethical. Historically cloning experiments pertains to cloning of animal embryos, such as mice experiments which date back to late 1970's, and cattle breeding in late 1980's. The experiments Lagunova 2 represented implantation of one or several clones, divided from one fertilized ovum, into the womb of a surrogate female (Robinson, "Embryo Cloning of Humans"). ...read more.

Middle

cells, and finally grow different kinds of cells, like nerve, blood, cardiac and other cells, that later could be injected into donors, who need treatment. The last step can be realized by the means of exposing the derived stem cells into chemicals or electrical shock. According to Lee Silver the last step can also be accomplished by tricking the embryonic cells into "thinking" they were still present in a very young embryo at a stage where division is supposed to occur without differentiation. This Lagunova 6 deception is carried out by placing the embryo in an environment overloaded with early embryo molecular signals. In this environment, an embryo will continue to grow and divide, over and over again, to produce millions upon millions of identical cells that are all frozen - in a development sense - at the same early embryonic stage" and "it then becomes possible to convert this undifferentiated mass into the particular tissue that one desires. Once again, the feat is accomplished with the use of particular molecular signals. (150) First of such experiments were conducted "as early as 1983, Elizabeth J. Robertson, who is now at Harvard University, demonstrated that stem cells isolated from parthenogenetic mouse embryos could form a variety of tissues, including nerve and muscle" (Cibelli 48). If the ACT scientists accomplish those last stages of the therapeutic cloning procedure with human embryos, they will be able to treat nervous and cardiovascular system diseases, such as damaged spinal cords, brain disorders, like Parkinson's disease, stroke, epilepsy, as well as diseases involving the blood and bone marrow, diabetes, and, possibly, cancer (Cibelli 48). ...read more.

Conclusion

Scientists believe that some of those women will be eager to donate their eggs for the medical research for reasonable payments (Green 49). Secondly, embryos resulted from the therapeutic cloning procedure have no moral status before 14 days from it's conception, because during the process [t]he embryo could be genetically reprogrammed to suppress all the parts of the body except for the needed parts, plus a heart and blood circulation. This could ameliorate the problem of the shortage of organs for transplantation.[...] For without a brain or central nervous system, these organs would not technically qualify as embryos. Insofar as human body parts like cells and tissues lack moral status, manipulating them is not morally objectionable. (Glannon 163) Finally, therapeutic cloning can not violate the essential of a person's humanity. Glannon explains this fact, that "it is in virtue of our psychology that we are rational and moral agents who can construct selves that persist through time, and since "at the biological level of cells, tissues, bones, and organs, there are no individuals with rights or interests who could be violated, harmed, or wronged", "it is because of ...dependence of our psychology on our biology that Lagunova 11 cloning these body parts can benefit humans, given our interest in not having to suffer form disease, disability or premature aging and death" (162). Given all the arguments that I presented in my essay, and in spite of all the disadvantages and opposition therapeutic cloning, I believe that it can be justified, because in my view it resolves the main ethical issue: it does not manipulate with the whole human being, but rather stem cells research is intended for reproduction of certain human organs or tissues necessary for the treatment of various diseases, as well as it does not manipulate human personality. ...read more.

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