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Commercial uses of Enzymes

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Commercial uses of Enzymes An enzyme is a biological catalyst that accelerates a chemical reaction by lowering the energy needed to start the reaction without actually being used or changed at all. All enzymes have a small surface area where the amino acid chains making up the enzyme form an indented area. This is where the catalytic action of the enzyme is. This is called the active site and is formed by the specific folding of the amino acid chains making up the protein ; the secondary, tertiary and quaternary protein structure. Three main types of reaction occur in your body which are catabolic reactions, anabolic reactions and reactions involving the turning of one substance into another. In this process, the atoms of the molecule are rearranged, eg glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of the atoms making them up. Enzymes are able to catalyse all of these reactions. The substances that are undergoing the reaction are called the substrates. ...read more.


Industries use pectinase to help clarify the juice of apples, cranberries and grape juice. It is also used in vinegar and wine making. Pectinase increases juice yields from cells by breaking down the pectin holding the juice in. It helps to make the juice, wine or vinegar clearer by breaking down the bits of cell that cause the juice to go cloudy. In this case, pectinase is mixed with cellulase. In the citrus industry it is used in the peeling process and to increase the yields of juice recovered. Pectin also sets jams and jellies. Pectinase is needed in fruit juices when they are concentrated to stop the juice from jelling. Pectinase acts optimally at around 35�C and at a pH of 5.5. It is obtained commercially from fungi particularly Aspergillus and Penicillium. Proteases are also commercial enzymes. They hydrolyse peptides in proteins and polypeptides. Pepsins are endopeptidases. This means they break bonds in the middle of the polypeptide chain. Exopeptidases remove individual amino acids from the ends of polypeptides. ...read more.


These sugars can then be turned into alcohol. This process is called saccharification. Amylase is also an important commercial enzyme. It hydrolyses starch and glycogen, converting it to dextrin or maltose. It is stable over a wider range of temperatures than many other enzymes. The optimum pH is 4. It is used to clarify fruit juices, wines, beer, by removing starch. It is also used in bread-making and brewing; amylase creates sugars from starch and allows for a browner crust in bread. It converts starch to glucose syrup which is used in the food industry as a sweetener. Maltose is used in jam and confectionery and can also be converted into glucose, then further by the enzyme glucose isomerase, into fructose. This is what diabetics use in place of sucrose and glucose. We can clearly see that enzymes are very important in the commercial world as they have a number of uses. They provide very good business sense as they do not require large amounts to run. Mainly due to the fact that they do not require high temperatures. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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