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Compare and Contrast the Transport System of a Mammal and a Plant

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Introduction

Compare and Contrast the Transport System of a Mammal and a Plant Introduction: Both mammals and plants require a transport system to satisfy the requirements of rapid supply of nutrients & gases, as well as the removal of waste products. Due to their huge surface area, transportation of substance is not quick enough if rely solely on diffusion, therefore a transport system is needed. A transport system relies on the mass flow movement of fluids due to pressure difference. The Mammalian Transport System: Mammals are metabolically active and have high nutrients demand, therefore a cardiovascular system is used to satisfy the need. This consists of a four-chambered heart and a system of interconnecting tubes (i.e. blood vessels) where blood is moved through them to the rest of the body. Mammal has a closed double circulatory system, which consists of pulmonary circulation going to the lungs and systemic circulation going to the rest of the body. With two circuits, a higher pressure blood can be achieved going to the body to form tissue fluid and deliver respiratory gases more quickly. ...read more.

Middle

It also contains elastic fibres to prevent the vessel from bursting. The capillary takes oxygenated blood as close as possible to all cells for rapid transfer of substances. It is one cell thick (endothelial cell) to minimize diffusion distance with its diameter about the same size as a red blood cell. There are gaps in the endothelium layer to allow substance to seep back into the blood. The vein brings deoxygenated blood (or oxygenated for pulmonary vein) back to the heart. Since blood in vein does not have a high pressure, less muscle and elastics are required, it also has a thin wall. Semilunar valves are present to prevent backflow of the blood. Vessels in a Plant: There are two main types of vessels in a plant transport system, known as xylem and phloem. Like vessels in mammals, xylem and phloem are both complex tissues containing more than one cell type. However, the cell types are different compared to mammals. Xylem has the dual functions of support and transport of water & mineral ions. Vessel elements in the xylem are involved with the transport of water. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the right atrium contracts, blood are pushed into the right ventricle. This is atrial systole, with tricuspid valves opening to allow blood flow. Valves in vena cava also close to prevent back flow. During ventricular systole, the right ventricle contracts which forces blood into the pulmonary artery. This pressure pushes open the semi-lunar valves while heart tendons prevent the tricuspid from opening to stop blood backflow into the atrium. Deoxygenated blood then collects blood from the lungs and return to the left side of the heart via the pulmonary vein, where heart undergoes diastole for blood to fill chamber, opening of bicuspid during atrial systole and blood pushes around to the body during ventricular systole through the aorta. In a cardiac cycle, the sinoatrial node, which is patch of muscle in wall with innate rhythm, sends impulse to atria which contracts (atrial systole). Non-conducting tissue between atria and ventricles and the atrio-ventricular node delay impulses for a short period of time to ensure atria and ventricles do not contract at the same time. Signal then is sent by the AVN through the Bundle of His to the Purkyne tissue, which brings contraction to ventricular wall. ?? ?? ?? ?? Adrian Tam ...read more.

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A reasonably good comparison of transport systems in mammals and plants. However, greater attention to detail and more complete explanations of terms would improve the quality. There are a few factual errors.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 05/09/2013

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