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comparing physical fitness between male and female-planning the investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 8.1 | Samiya Najib Aim To plan a scientific investigation based on a study of how gender affects physical fitness. Introduction In this part of the assignment, I will be planning an investigation of how gender affects physical fitness. To do this, I will firstly collect some background information regarding the various techniques going to be used to test this, this will then help me create some predictions; I will then acquire the methods for the various ways to test the effects on fitness. To ensure the methods selected are correct, trials will be carried out. The methods chosen are: * The Harvard step test- for aerobic fitness testing * The sit and reach- to test the flexibility * Sit ups and push ups- to test muscular endurance * Carbon dioxide levels will be tested during aerobic exercise Four females and four males will be chosen randomly to carry out these tests. Finally a timetable will be produced to confirm when the tasks should be performed. Although a grip dynamometer is useful to test strength and leg and arm speed will also be useful to test for speed, there can be dangerous effects on the subject's body as they may or may not be regularly active. Background Information Aerobic respiration This is the process in which oxygen is used to make energy (ATP). C6H12O6 + 6O ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy Aerobic respiration is divided into two processes: 1. ...read more.

Middle

-30 > - 69 -25 > -59 POOR -70 > - 99 -60 > - 84 CHECK -100 -85 Sit and reach The following table shows the normative data of the sit and reach test for male and female Gender Excellent Above average Average Below average Poor Male >14 11 - 14 7 - 10 4 - 6 <4 Female >15 12 - 15 7 - 11 4 - 6 <4 Females' flexibility is normally higher than of males this is due to females usually having a lower muscle mass than of males. This is because males have testosterone which allows them to produce muscle at a high level. Sit ups Male Age 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 65+ Excellent >49 >45 >41 >35 >31 >28 Good 44-49 40-45 35-41 29-35 25-31 22-28 Above average 39-43 35-39 30-34 25-28 21-24 19-21 Average 35-38 31-34 27-29 22-24 17-20 15-18 Below Average 31-34 29-30 23-26 18-21 13-16 11-14 Poor 25-30 22-28 17-22 13-17 9-12 7-10 Very Poor <25 <22 <17 <9 <9 <7 Female Excellent >43 >39 >33 >27 >24 >23 Good 37-43 33-39 27-33 22-27 18-24 17-23 Above average 33-36 29-32 23-26 18-21 13-17 14-16 Average 29-32 25-28 19-22 14-17 10-12 11-13 Below Average 25-28 21-24 15-18 10-13 7-9 5-10 Poor 18-24 13-20 7-14 5-9 3-6 2-4 Very Poor <18 <20 <7 <5 <3 <2 The table below shows the normative data of sit ups for male and female, aged 16-19. The reason why males are able to do more sit ups than females is because male have a higher muscular endurance. ...read more.

Conclusion

Hands and toes touching the floor 2. The body and legs are in a straight line 3. Feet should be slightly apart 4. The arms should be at shoulder width apart, extended and at right angles to the body 5. The stopwatch is started 6. Keeping the back and knees straight, the subject lowers the body until the elbows are bent at a 90-degree angle, with the upper arms parallel to the floor 7. The push-ups are repeated at one every three seconds. 8. After sixty seconds the subject stops 9. And the number of press ups performed are recorded Titration for carbon dioxide levels This will not be carried out until the main experiment; therefore the method is not yet known. Preliminary Tests Name Harvard Step Test Sit & Reach Press ups Sit ups Brian 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 19cm 38 65 75 66 55 Vaidotas 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 12cm 25 90 70 61 45 Nilesh 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 25cm 26 23 74 61 32 Suhail 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 26cm 17 50 57 45 41 Natasha 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 29cm 2 84 50 40 38 Samiya 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 28cm 4 25 70 68 58 Sundus 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 18cm 3 12 76 68 56 Elizabeth 1-1.30 2-2.30 3-3.30 28cm 2 45 60 40 37 Preliminary tests were performed in order to record any constraints so we can then know where we must improve to achieve accurate results. Constraints and contingency plans Anticipated Problem Contingency Plan Most students were fasting during the trials Postpone the main practical after the fasting period is over Most equipment such as floor mats, stopwatches and pulse readers were unavailable; therefore resulting in problems for e.g. ...read more.

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