• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

Comparing the denaturation rate of fungal and bacterial amylase.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Comparing the denaturation rate of fungal and bacterial amylase. Plan Amylases are widespread enzymes which hydrolyse starch to maltose. They are often found in two forms, ? amylase which degrades starch molecules into fragments 10 glucose residues long and ? amylase which breaks down these into maltose made up of two glucose molecules. Both work by hydrolysis adding one molecule of water across the glycosidic link. Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that bacterial amylase will work more efficiently at higher temperatures than fungal amylase. Both bacteria and fungi use amylases in their basic method of feeding. Bacteria are prokaryotes which means they are very small and have no true nucleus. They are unicellular but occur together in vast numbers as large groups or entirely separate cells. Being found almost everywhere in air, soil, water and in living things they are of great ecological and economic importance. Many bacteria cause decay and with fungi, facilitate the recycling of nutrients. Bacteria can grow well in a wide variety of conditions and whilst temperatures of 25-45�C are most favourable there is a very wide range with some able to continue to grow slowly near to 0�C and others able to survive hot springs above 80�C. On the other hand fungi are eukaryotes which means they generally have larger cells and have membrane bound organelles. Fungi comprise the moulds, yeasts, mildews, mushrooms, puffballs and rusts. They can be saprophytic, feeding on dead organic matter or parasitic. Fungi consist of a fungal body, the mycelium which is made up of fine threads called hyphae. In a specialised part of the mycelium, spores are produced in vast numbers and dispersed. Moulds which are multicellular fungi, grow best at temperatures of about 30�C, their growth is slowed at lower temperatures. In trying to rid foods of moulds the food is heat treated at 60-70�C. In comparison bacteria are heat treated to 100�C or more before they are killed off. ...read more.

Middle

1 180 2 210 3 150 Mean 180 Fungal amylase Test number Time taken for iodine colour change (s) 1 30 2 30 3 30 Mean 30 To enable me to compare the effects of temperature treatment on each enzyme I calculated the overall rate of reaction for each using the formula: I then expressed the rate of each reaction as a percentage of the rate of the untreated enzyme. The results are shown in the following summary table: Conclusions Main trends and patterns The results show that there is a significant difference in the response of bacterial and fungal amylase to different temperature treatments. The raw data shows that bacterial amylase is significantly less active in these conditions compared with fungal amylase. Fungal amylase retains 100% of its activity when treated at temperatures up to 60�C. Above this temperature fungal amylase activity rapidly decreases to less than 5% of its original rate but still retains some limited activity even at when treated at 90�C. Length of time of treatment appeared to have little effect on this pattern since there were only small variations at 70�C and at 90�C. In contrast bacterial amylase activity was inhibited by treatment at 40�C for 600s and 900s. It could be said therefore that the bacterial amylase was more sensitive to temperature but although activity was inhibited the bacterial enzyme was affected much less by treatments in the range 50-90�C. It can be seen from the graph that the bacterial enzyme retained over 50% of its activity up to 80�C. It also appeared that length of time of treatment was also more important to the activity of bacterial amylase as there was an obvious relationship showing that the longer the treatment the slower the reaction at three of the temperatures tested. The results for bacterial amylase also showed a much greater degree of variability. There were obvious anomalies at 60 and 80�C for the 900s treatment although it was interesting to note that all of the rates rose unexpectedly between 50 a n d 60�C. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is good evidence from the conclusions and the separate limitations section that the candidate is well aware of the major limitations and anomalies in this investigation: The cautious nature of the final conclusion and the analysis of the shortcomings of the experimental technique show an awareness of the tentative nature of the results obtained. Whilst this is rather short it does identify all the important points and is close to a maximum 8 marks The candidate recognises that the variability of the bacterial amylase results in particular needs further investigation and the suggestions for further study in carrying out more repeats, investigating the important temperature range in more detail and looking at a wider range of enzymes from bacteria and fungi are well chosen. and clearly closely related to the hypothesis under investigation. Once again this would benefit from a little more discussion in depth but it is refreshing to see important points selected and commented on with some conciseness rather than being hidden in long accounts of sometimes irrelevant background theory. This again is a good concise summary which meets the criteria for 8 marks well. 8 marks were awarded for analysing evidence and drawing conclusions. TOTAL Planning = 8 Implementing = 7 Analysing = 8 Evaluating = 8 Overall total: 31/32 Context of this investigation Following theoretical work on enzymes, the group of students performed simple laboratory experiments on amylases and proteases recapping their Key Stage 4 work on peroxidase. They were provided with samples of different enzymes and asked to investigate some basic properties in detail. Several students investigated temperature effects but initial planning and pilot tests were individual and this resulted in very different approaches to the problems of heat treatment, assessing end points and numerical analysis of data which were clearly reflected in the final reports. In awarding the highest mark the centre was therefore confident that this was the individual work of a very able student. The candidate spent approximately three hours on the practical work. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    8 6 4 2 0 The possibility of a second table with the averages of the experiment could be made. A graph to present the results will also be drawn out (by hand), where the x-axis is the diameter of the clearance rings, and the y-axis is the increasing percentage concentrations.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the pH affect the activity of amylase

    3 star(s)

    + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

  1. How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

    This horizontal line is the maximum rate of reaction and is known as the V-max. This no longer increase in the rate of reaction is due to the lack of 'free' active sites (all enzymes occupied). Because the substrate concentration is limited, the enzyme active sites are 'occupied' leaving the remaining substrate molecules to 'wait' until an enzyme is 'free'.

  2. Investigating the effect of temperature on the enzyme amylase.

    I need to be careful when handling glass not to break the test tubes or the glass pipettes so I do not cut myself. It is very important that health and safety is observed considering the saliva. Test tubes should be labelled so they are not mixed up and picked up by accident.

  1. Enzymes - investigate the affect of amylase concentration on starch breakdown into glucose.

    EMPTY GRAPH I have decided to use these values on my graph based on the results of the preliminary work that I carried out prior to this experiment. My preliminary work consisted of short experiments know as 'the spotting tile experiments'.

  2. A Comparison into how temperature effects the rate of reaction of Bacterial amylase and ...

    They compromise mushrooms, moulds, yeast's etc... They can be saprophytic, feeding on dead organic matter, or parasitic. Moulds which are multicellular fungi, grow best at about 30 c, their growth is slowed at lower temperatures. A bacterium is heated to temperatures of 100 c or more in order to kill it, for example in food contamination.

  1. Investigating the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Amylase on starch

    Temperature (*c) Amylase Concentration (%) Starch Concentration (%) Reading Transmission of light after __ seconds 30 60 90 120 150 0 4 1 1 2 3 10 4 1 1 2 3 20 4 1 1 2 3 30 4 1 1 2 3 40 4 1 1 2 3

  2. How does pH affect the Denaturation of enzymes Starch and Amylase.

    Every enzyme is specifically shaped so that the products can fit into them perfect. When they are in place they react, and are released to be used again. Starch is broken down by hydrolysis. Hydrolysis breaks down starch by the adding of a water molecule.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work