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Comparison of Transport System in Amphibian and Mammalian models

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Introduction

Practical 5 Comparison of Transport System in Amphibian and Mammalian models 1.0 Introduction Frogs belong to a group of animals called Amphibia that tend to almost always reside in confined habitats near water; making them both terrestrial and water-living animals. They tend to inhibit moist, damp conditions such as swamps and marshes. Frogs have powerful hind limbs adapted for swimming and leaping as their method of locomotion. The webs on the hind feet provide a large surface area for pushing against the water surface. Their eyes have a protective lid and can be withdrawn into the skull while the eardrums are located behind and below the eyes. Frogs have a loose-fitting, thin, moist skin which is supplied with a network of blood vessels. The skin is used for respiration and oxygen is absorbed through its surface and into the blood. The frog's nostrils are specialized to allow respiration while submerged underwater. There are valves that prevent water from entering their nasal cavities. Rats belong to a group of animals called Mammalia that are solely terrestrial. Round circular ears are located on both anterior sides of the rat's head. They have small eyes and the mouth is located below the nose. ...read more.

Middle

Left and right lungs Aorta Diaphragm 3.0 Results a) Rat transport system 4.0 Discussion Comparing the anatomy and physiology of both transport systems (Mammalian and Amphibian) TABLE 5.3 Anatomy and physiology. The comparison of transport systems in mammals and amphibians Organism Amphibians Mammals Type of circulatory system Closed circulatory system * Double * Pulmocutaneous and systemic circulation Closed circulatory system * Double * Pulmonary and systemic circulation Presence of septum No Yes Separation of oxygen-rich and poor blood Incomplete Complete Number of chambers in the heart Three Four Based on the observation of the table above, the septum is a key evolutionary adaption that is present in the mammalian heart but not in the amphibian. Its development ensures the complete separation of oxygen-rich and poor blood as seen in the mammal. This is a more effective form of transport and exchange because waste materials carried by oxygen-poor blood do not interact with the oxygen-rich blood that gets delivered to the rest of the body. As endotherms, mammalians generate their own thermal energy to regulate internal temperature. Hence, a higher metabolic rate is needed and their circulatory system is more complex. Gaseous exchange in frogs is more effective than in rats. ...read more.

Conclusion

7. Make academically sound inference(s) as to why there is a noted difference between an amphibian and a mammal. A difference is observed due to the presence of a septum in a mammalian heart. Amphibians have a three chambered heart: 2 atria and 1 ventricle. This single ventricle is not separated by a septum; unlike the 2 ventricles in the mammalian heart that includes a septum. Without the septum, the exchanging of materials are not as effecting because there is a degree of mixing between oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-poor blood that carries waste materials. This can cause the waste materials to be circulated back into the body. In a mammalian heart, a full septum is seen that divides the ventricles into two. It has a more effective transport and exchange of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to organs that need it. The presence of a septum in the heart proves to make the mammal more adaptive to evolution. 7.0 Format and referencing a. Prater, A. M., Sep 24, 2009. The Different Blood Vessels: Arteries, Veins and Capillaries [Online]. Available from: http://www.suite101.com/content/the-different-blood-vessels-a152368 [Accessed 11 November 2010] b. Ross, J., June 30, 1999. Blood Vessels [Online]. Available from: http://greenfield.fortunecity.com/rattler/46/comparison_of_types_of_vessels.htm [Accessed 11 November 2010] c. Simmons, K., 2006. Rat circulatory system [Online]. University of Winnipeg. Available from: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/16labman05/index.htm [Accessed 14 November 2010] ?? ?? ?? ?? MF011 General Biology II Thursday Group (2) Practical 5 ...read more.

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4 star(s)

This essay contains an excellent example of how to write up a practical. It is clear and concise and contains correct procedure for the writing and discussing of practical work.

There are a few technical errors and there are areas that I feel are a little over looked - such as diffusion gradients, efficiency in terms of gas exchange and the structure of the heart in terms of pumping blood. There are also areas where a little further research might have helped.

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Marked by teacher Sam Morran 08/01/2013

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