• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Copper Young's modulus

Extracts from this document...



Measuring Young’s modulus of copper


To study the stress/strain behavior of copper wire and estimate the Young’s modulus of copper


Copper wire s.w.g.32        about 4 m

G-clamp        ×1

Wooden block        ×2

Metre rule        ×4

Pulley on clamp        ×1

Micrometer screw gauge        ×1

Hanger (0.01 kg)         ×1

Slotted mass (0.05 kg)         ×8

Slotted mass (0.1 kg)        ×6

Slotted mass (0.2 kg)        ×4

Slotted mass (0.5 kg)        ×1

White label sticker        ×1

Safety goggles        ×1

Rubber tile        ×1


When a force F is applied to the end of a wire with cross-sectional area A along its length, the tensile stress = image00.png

If the extension of the wire is Δl, and its original length is lo, the tensile strain = image01.png

Under elastic conditions, a modulus of elasticity of a wire, called the Young modulus E, is defined as the ratio of the tensile stress applied to a body to the tensile strain produced. image10.png where E is expressed in N m-2 or Pascal (Pa).

E is a constant when Δl is small according to the Hooke’s Law which stated that the stress applied to any solid is proportional to the strain it produces for small strain.

Therefore, when a material has a larger the value of E

...read more.










Average diameter of the wire = (0.240±0.005) mm

Percentage error in d =image18.png

Readings for the graph:

Load m/kg








Extension Δl/mm








Load m/kg








Extension Δl/mm









Data analysis:

Young’s modulus, image10.png

where F is the tension in the wire and A is the cross-section area



From the graph, the slope of the best fit line through the points of the straight line portion of the graph,image03.pngimage04.png


...read more.


Improvement of the Experiment:

  1. Fixed the metre ruler by another G-clamp so that measurement of the extension can be more accurate.
  2. In order to measure extremely small extension with high precision, “optical lever” (a mirror mounted on a small pivot) can be used instead of just using a simple meter stick.image14.png
  3. Repeat the experiment several time and take average of the extension values so that more accurate result can be obtained
  4. The experiment can be repeated as below so that the small extension of the wire can be measured accurately by vernier scale; moreover, there will be no extra fractional fore due to the presence of pulley.


  1. Repeat the experiment by using copper wire with different s.w.g and take an average of the Young’s modulus obtained so that we can estimate the value of Young’s modulus of copper more accurately.


  1. Wear safety goggle during the experiment so as to protect our eyes when the wire breaks eventually
  2. The load should not be too high off the floor, and there should be a suitable soft landing platform, such as runner tile right below the load.
  3. The unstretched length should be at least 3m for the wire to extend.  


...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity essays

  1. Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair.

    I am comparing two sets of data. Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Implementing: (Skill B) Modifications * Four different colours of hair need to be used; to increase range of results and to make my conclusion more reliable.

  2. Young's Modulus of Nylon

    In order to achieve an adequate number of results from each experiment to make a fair analysis and conclusion to the investigation, I will need to take a minimum of eight readings (i.e the nylon should withstand at least 800g/7.849N).

  1. Young Modulus case study

    Historical/Social/Environmental/Economic Factors Fishing has always been a significant practice for countless years. Primitive uses were mainly for hunting fish; making it a means of survival. However, nowadays fishing has become somewhat of a sport,hobby, or to some, a profession. It has become a competitive sport between anglers, where everyone seeks to use the best equipment with the best materials.

  2. Calculating the Young Modulus of Constanton

    Weight (g) Mass (N) Length (mm) Stress (Nm-2/Pa) Strain 6) Repeat the experiment three times or until you get a set of similar results. Results Experiment 1 In the first attempt at calculating the youngs modulus of constanton i used 0.44mm diameter wire with an initial length of 500mm.

  1. Young Modulus of Copper

    When the wire is further stretched, it reaches the elastic limit and get into stage 2. Stage 2 : Plastic deformation In this stage, the stress is not directly proportional to the strain and and a small amount of stress can produce a large strain.

  2. D2 Measurong Young's modulus of copper(TAS)

    Since F=mg and A= cross-sectional area of the wire = ?(d/2)2 = ?d2/4, Young's modulus of the copper wire is given by E = Fl/Ae = mgl/(?d2/4)e = m/e x 4gl/?d2 = slope of graph x 4gl/?d2 Procedure 1.To measure the diameter of the wire at two end and the

  1. Given a Batch of Factory Springs, Estimate the Average Spring Constant and Uncertainty of ...

    (This causes the graph to become a curve.) Hooke's law only applies to a spring that is within its limit of proportionality. I have decided to set up the apparatus in this way, because although I could have set up the apparatus in a way that error due to gravity

  2. Investigating the depression of a ruler when force is applied.

    We found that this experiment did obeyed Hook's Law, and that the stretch of the spring was proportional to the force applied. The equipment needed are two rulers, one for the mass to be added to and the second to measure how much the ruler bends.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work