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Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism, explaining the role of ATP in these processes. Be sure to use specific examples to make your answer clear.

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Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 1) - Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism, explaining the role of ATP in these processes. Be sure to use specific examples to make your answer clear. The patterns of growth and decay in an organism result from two opposing forces; anabolism (synthesis), and catabolism (decay). Metabolism, Anabolism and Catabolism are all types of process that happen in every living cell, in every living organism. They are to do with breaking down large molecules into smaller ones (decay), making larger molecules out of smaller ones (synthesis), and altering molecules so they are of use in reactions. ATP is required for all of these processes, to build molecules up, and to break them down, and especially to convert them to something else, for example in respiration when glucose is converted to glucose - 6 - phosphate. ATP and energy in the form of electrons are also produced in Catabolism. It is important when discussing this topic that we remember that organisms can neither create nor destroy energy, but simply transform it from one form to another. Metabolism All life forms-from single-celled algae to mammals-are dependent on many hundreds of simultaneous and precisely regulated metabolic reactions to support them from conception through growth and maturity to the final stages of life. ...read more.


and can then be broken down in a catabolic reaction when there are no 'free glucose' molecules in the blood, but the body requires energy. Include picture pg 38. There are many processes like this one that occur in the body, another good example is the building up of amino acids to form proteins. Amino acids are carried by tRNA molecules, which join to specific mRNA molecules, to bring together a specific sequence of amino acids. ATP is required to join the amino acids together in a condensation reaction with peptide bonds, and water is lost. As amino acids are joined together they form peptides, many peptides joined together form polypeptides and eventually polypeptides join together to form proteins; the joining of all of these requires energy in condensation reactions. Amino acids on their own in the body are only good for building up to bigger molecules, once the ATP has been used to form the protein, these can then fold into primary, secondary and tertiary structures, when other strands of protein are added a quaternary structure can be formed. Proteins are the basis of enzymes, which are used to control all metabolic reactions. ...read more.


Anabolism is the opposite to catabolism, and therefore the way proteins and fats are built up in anabolic reactions, the reverse happens in catabolism. Contained within the carbohydrate group is sugars and starches, they are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and therefore are broken down into these components during catabolism reactions. Carbon is useful in the body as a 'building block', it is used to build up other molecules that are needed in the body, such as nucleic acids, which are the building block for DNA. Without DNA we could not build new cells, this goes for the hydrogen and oxygen as well, both important in respiration, which fuels the process of 'building' a new cell. So it is important to break down the products of food in digestion so that they can be used in new processes within the body. Catabolism breaks down large molecules to form 'building blocks' for biosynthesis, all the metabolic reactions that occur in the body. Depending on their source of reducing power organisms can be classified as either organotrophs or lithotrophs. Organotrophs oxidise organic compounds; as an example, the complete oxidation of a typical carbohydrate (CH2O) by respiration by an organotroph can be represented as: CH2O + O2-->CO2 + H2O. Lithotrophs oxidise inorganic compounds for example NO2- (nitrite), is oxidized to NO3- (nitrate) in the carbon cycle. ...read more.

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