• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and compare the digestion and alimentary canal of carnivores, ruminants and hindgut fermenters.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe and compare the digestion and alimentary canal of carnivores, ruminants and hindgut fermenters. Carnivores have a dentition similar to humans. However, the third upper premolar and first lower molar is enlarged and pointed. These are known as the carnassials. These teeth allow the shearing of food. Canines are also more prominent. A great pressure can be exerted by the canines since they are pointed and thus can pierce flesh. Molars are flattened, and aligned with the powerful jaw muscles. This structure is ideal for crushing bone. Upper and lower jaw fit together so closely that they cannot be dislocated thus making ideal for holding on struggling prey. The temporal muscle is well developed unlike the masseter muscle which is relatively smaller. Adaptations of the alimentary canal to high protein diet include three main characteristics. ...read more.

Middle

In the large intestine the final processes takes place. In all animals water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place and faeces are formed. In carnivores, that's about the extent of it, but in ruminants and hindgut fermenters, the large intestine is huge and of critical importance for utilisation of cellulose. Ruminants are herbivores. These herbivores have several modifications in their alimentary canal. They have a horny pad instead of the upper incisors. Canines are absent. They also have a toothless gap between the incisors and the premolars. This is known as the diastema. It allows the manipulation of food by the tongue. The molars and premolars of these animals grow indefinitely to replace layers that are worn away by frictional forces produced during the chewing of food. The upper molars are W-shaped while the lower molars are M-shaped. ...read more.

Conclusion

Incisors are adapted of growing and scraping (shaped like chisels). Molars and premolars have flat grinding surfaces and continue to grow throughout life (as they are worn away by grinding). Upper and lower jaw fit together very loosely to allow side to side movement during chewing. The fermentation of cellulose occurs in the large intestine unlike that of ruminants which occurs in the stomach. The caecum and appendix are large since fermentation occurs here. The large intestine is relatively longer so that food spends enough time in it to enable the absorption of nutrients. Even with the aid of cellulose-digesting bacteria, vegetation provides a poor diet for hindgut fermenters such as the rabbit, and thus they have to digest the food twice. During the night the rabbit produces pellets of faeces, which contain some undigested food. It eats these night pellets whilst it is asleep and they pass through the digestive system for a second time. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    this could have a big impact on the data if the pH probe is not calibrated properly. This is because the pH that it reads will be inaccurate making our results unreliable. Use a pH buffer of 7 and one of 4.

  2. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    Thermostatic Water Bath 1 preheated to a constant temperature To accurately measure temperature and keep it constant. It will keep the temperature of the reactants constant as opposed to a beaker of hot water which could cool down and cause fluctuations in temperature.

  1. Energy absorbed by a bouncing ball.

    The balance that I will be using is accurate to 2 decimal places. This will make my measurements very precise which will be good so that I can get an accurate, reliable reading for the fraction of energy absorbed the ball at different heights.

  2. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    Can also be activated by trypsin. Chymotrypsin (endopeptidase) Protein Peptides It is a protease. It is secreted in inactive form of chymotrypsinogen. Its conversion to chymotrypsin is also speeded up by enterokinase. It can also be activated by trypsin. Carboxypeptidase (exopeptidase) Peptides Amino acids Removes amino acids from the carboxyl end of peptide chains.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work