• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and compare the digestion and alimentary canal of carnivores, ruminants and hindgut fermenters.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe and compare the digestion and alimentary canal of carnivores, ruminants and hindgut fermenters. Carnivores have a dentition similar to humans. However, the third upper premolar and first lower molar is enlarged and pointed. These are known as the carnassials. These teeth allow the shearing of food. Canines are also more prominent. A great pressure can be exerted by the canines since they are pointed and thus can pierce flesh. Molars are flattened, and aligned with the powerful jaw muscles. This structure is ideal for crushing bone. Upper and lower jaw fit together so closely that they cannot be dislocated thus making ideal for holding on struggling prey. The temporal muscle is well developed unlike the masseter muscle which is relatively smaller. Adaptations of the alimentary canal to high protein diet include three main characteristics. ...read more.

Middle

In the large intestine the final processes takes place. In all animals water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place and faeces are formed. In carnivores, that's about the extent of it, but in ruminants and hindgut fermenters, the large intestine is huge and of critical importance for utilisation of cellulose. Ruminants are herbivores. These herbivores have several modifications in their alimentary canal. They have a horny pad instead of the upper incisors. Canines are absent. They also have a toothless gap between the incisors and the premolars. This is known as the diastema. It allows the manipulation of food by the tongue. The molars and premolars of these animals grow indefinitely to replace layers that are worn away by frictional forces produced during the chewing of food. The upper molars are W-shaped while the lower molars are M-shaped. ...read more.

Conclusion

Incisors are adapted of growing and scraping (shaped like chisels). Molars and premolars have flat grinding surfaces and continue to grow throughout life (as they are worn away by grinding). Upper and lower jaw fit together very loosely to allow side to side movement during chewing. The fermentation of cellulose occurs in the large intestine unlike that of ruminants which occurs in the stomach. The caecum and appendix are large since fermentation occurs here. The large intestine is relatively longer so that food spends enough time in it to enable the absorption of nutrients. Even with the aid of cellulose-digesting bacteria, vegetation provides a poor diet for hindgut fermenters such as the rabbit, and thus they have to digest the food twice. During the night the rabbit produces pellets of faeces, which contain some undigested food. It eats these night pellets whilst it is asleep and they pass through the digestive system for a second time. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    - The concentration of different ions e.g. sodium and potassium. - The osmotic pressure. - The temperature. - The pH. Information from a handout, Chapter 21 The Principles Of Homeostasis, The formation of tissue fluid. TASK 3 - UNIT 17 At the start of this Task, I will carry out

  2. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    as there is less space for deviation of the results as the apparatus are accurate to several decimal places. In addition to this I believe that the procedures I have in my method such as starting from the same pH each time and starting the data logging before the reaction

  1. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    This specific sequence makes up the enzymes primary structure. The secondary structure is made when the peptide group of the amino acids interact to form hydrogen bonds between the molecules. There are three types of folding that occur; alpha helix, beta pleated sheet or a random shape.

  2. Energy absorbed by a bouncing ball.

    The problem with this experiment is that it is very difficult to measure the surface area of contact of the ball when it hits the hard surface. * Measuring the time taken for one bounce. Here I could investigate whether the time difference is the same or different at different initial heights.

  1. Weed study. Dandelions - descrption and characteristics. Investigation to dandelion distribution.

    Many botanists have researched the existence of the Dandelion and have made many theories on its living in nature. Gardeners and botanists have diverse opinions on the Dandelion. Some classifying it as a 'weed' and some consider it a benefit to their garden.

  2. Writing to describe.

    I had a warm feeling inside that told me that i was in some sort of fantasy world where only happiness existed . The hotel was spacious and the food was delicious . We couldnt have asked for anything better .

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work