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Describe the construction, operation and application of distillation equipment used in industry

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Introduction

Faculty: Technology Assign/Activity Code: 306/02 Course Title: C&G 0603 - Process Technology Instructions for the use of this cover sheet (1) A cover sheet is required for every activity including presentations (2) Please complete all sections below (3) Staple the cover sheet to your activity Student name: Billy Whelton Unit(s): LEVEL 3 Unit 306: Distillation in the Process Industry Assignment/ Activity title: 02 - Distillation equipment & Their Safe Use Hand out date: 10-12-2007 Hand in date: 01-04-2008 Graded (Y/N) N Resubmission date for referred work: 08-04-2008 Student's comment on activity (if applicable): Student's Signature: ................................................ Date: ................. Assessment Grading Decision (by Assessor). Assessment decision following Verification. Activity designed by Assessed & graded by Key Skills Assessed by Name: Geoff Martin Name: Date: 28-06-05 Date: Internally Moderated by Internally Verified by Name: Name: Date: Date: You must store all marked activities in a portfolio (folder) for External Verification during the academic year. Grading descriptors PASS You have successfully completed all tasks and submitted all evidence as stated. Task Comments Pass Criteria Met Yes/No Grading Comments Overall Grade P/R Hand in date for referred work .................. Outcome 2: Describe the construction, operation and application of distillation equipment used in industry 1. describe the construction, operation and applications of common types of plate column to include:- a bubble cap Bubble cap trays have a riser, or chimney, fitted over each hole with a cap covering the riser. There is a small gap between the riser and the cap to allow vapour travel through the trays. The cap then diverts the vapour back onto the top of the tray so that it interacts with the liquid. b sieve trays Sieve trays are constructed from sheets of a highly resistant material, then having holes drilled through it. This allows the passage of vapour and liquid through it. They are the most widely used system as they are simple, versatile, have a good capacity and are cost effective. ...read more.

Middle

If it does occur, again the costs and problem count would increase while the efficiency would drop. e liquid hold up Packed columns: does not occur that often due to the construction. As there are many routes for the gas and liquid to take, there is less of a chance of liquid hold up occurring. Also, there is also only going to be a small surface area on which the rising gas can act, again reducing the chance. This will increase the operating costs, but lower the efficiency and problems that are encountered. Plate columns: liquid hold up is a common thing. Rising gases stop all the liquid from falling down the column, ensuring there is a constant level on each plate. This can improve efficiency, lower costs and operating problems. f pressure drop. The pressure drop across a packed column is almost constant, where as in a plate column it varies as you move upwards from the bottom. This gives a difference in application situations, the packed columns are more suited to operating when only two or maybe three products need separating such as Isobutane from butane, where as plate columns are able to fraction multiple components out. If either is used in the wrong situation, the operating problems can be tremendous as plate columns will not separate IC4 from C4 and crude oil will not be split in a packed column properly. 7. explain the following operating problems associated with plate and packed columns. a variations in temperature Packed columns have a small temperature difference between the top and bottom of the column. This means that if the temperature were to rise slightly in the column, then the product that should come out of the bottom of the column may leave at the top. The second product will either also leave with it, or increase the pressure of the column, in turn raising the temperature again. ...read more.

Conclusion

This means that there is reduced chance of injury as there are no persons stood directly below the burner when the fuel is being ignited. g pressure surge A pressure surge can be controlled in two ways. One is to have a reduced in the line, which will only allow a certain amount of product through, such reducing the pressure of it. The other is to have PSV's fitted to the column's and vessels. If the pressure increases and exceeds a set limit, the valve lifts and the pressure escapes through the valve. h static electricity Static electricity is a major problem. The only way to reduce the chance of a problem from it is to have all vessels, columns, equipment and people earthed. By doing this, the charges that build up are dissipated into the ground in a controlled manner, lowering the likelihood of a problem. i spillages and leaks. Spillages and leaks can be controlled in two ways. By having a designated spills response team, if a problem does arrive then there are already people designated to deal with it. Also, the construction of bunds around columns and vessels helps to control the problem is it does occur. To prevent them, regular inspection of everything is required to check thicknesses and strengthen any point which is vunurable. 2. state the function of the special chemicals used to reduce operational hazards a. anti-foaming agents Anti-foaming agents are used to prevent foaming in the columns (see Outcome 2, Question 6.b.) Due to the value and efficiency of the chemical, only a small amount is needed to control the hazard. It eliminates the build up of small bubbles. Commonly used agents are insoluble oils, dimethyl polysiloxanes and other silicones, certain alcohols, stearates and glycols. b. corrosion inhibitors. Corrosion inhibitors remove oxygen from the product. This helps to reduce the amount of internal corrosion of vessels and pipe's, as most chemicals require the presence of oxygen to react with metal. ?? ?? ?? ?? Vocational Assignment ...read more.

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