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Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism

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Introduction

Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism (p4) Explain the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism (m1) Introduction In this assignment I will describe how energy works in the body and why we need energy. I will also link this to the three body systems relating to energy. The three body systems I will be discussing: 1. Respiratory 2. Digestive 3. Cardiovascular What is Energy? Energy is made up of glucose + oxygen, ATP and ADP (adenosine triphosphate). Energy is measured in kilojoules or calories. Image form: (http://sciencenavigators.blogspot.com/2009/11/cellular-respiration-inside-of-me.html) APT /ADP There are three sources of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's main energy source on the cellular level. 1. ATP-PC system (phosphogen system) this system is used for very short durations of up to 10 seconds. The ATP system doesn't use oxygen and doesn't produce lactic acid. This is the primary system behind very short, powerful movements. For example power lifting, golf swing. 2. Anaerobic system (lactic acid system) the anaerobic supplies energy for exercise lasting less than 2 minutes. This system is also known as the glycolytic system. This system would be used for activities such as a 400m sprint. 3. Aerobic system- this is a long duration of energy system. Doing 5 minutes of exercise the O� system is the main functioning system. ...read more.

Middle

* This is where gas exchange takes place - oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli. Alveoli * Gas exchange The surface of alveoli is thin and moist. It is like this so that gases can pass through or be exchanged easily. Surface size means how large the surface of the alveoli is. Alveoli are smaller than grains of salt and there are 300 million of them in the lungs. Alveoli have a very large surface area in total; plenty of room for gas exchange. The surfaces of the alveoli are covered with capillaries. These are narrow blood vessels which are one cell thick. Oxygen is passed from the alveoli into the bloodstream, which then distributes it to cells where it is used to unlock energy from food. The blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product from the oxygen combusting with food in cells, back to the capillaries, where it goes back through the walls of the alveoli and is breathed out when you exhale, as waste. Blood flows into the lungs from around the body. It carries carbon dioxide produced by respiration in the cells of the body. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli. Then it is breathed out of the body. Oxygen is breathed into the lungs. It dissolves in the water lining of the alveoli. ...read more.

Conclusion

The two ventricles pump the blood out of the heart. The Valves will prevent the blood from flowing backwards. The septum separates the two sides of the heart. The heart has four chambers Arteries * Carry blood away from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs) * Have thick muscular walls * Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen) * Contain blood under high pressure Veins * Carry blood to the heart (always de-oxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart) * Have thin walls * Have larger internal lumen * Contain blood under low pressure * Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards Capillaries * Found in the muscles and lungs * Microscopic - one cell thick * Very low blood pressure * Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood Blood has four key components: Plasma * Fluid part of blood * Carries carbon dioxide, hormones and waste Red blood cells * Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen * Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red blood cells are made. White blood cells * Protect the body by fighting disease * Made in the long bones Platelets * Clump together to form clots * Protect the body by stopping bleeding Images from: www.google.com/images ?? ?? ?? ?? Michaela O'Connor unit 5 P4, M1 ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

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The essay sets out to explain the role of energy in the human body - where the body obtains its energy supply from and what activities the energy is required for. The writer partially succeeds in this aim, giving insights into respiration - the process which supplies energy in the form of ATP. The essay explains the role of three body systems in enabling all cells in the body to carry out respiration.

However, the title of the essay specifies 'energy metabolism'. This encompasses not only the release of energy from glucose (respiration) but also the roles of ATP in the body, i.e. for what purposes does the body need energy? Little mention was made of work - those cellular activities which require energy (ATP).
The writer tends to provide the reader with too much information on the three selected systems, much of which is not relevant to energy metabolism.
This topic needed a sequential approach to the energy 'story', starting with a clear definition of energy metabolism (both anabolism and catabolism); then looking at how cells acquire their oxygen and glucose to respire; and finally, an account of work in the body, i.e. the uses of ATP to run energy-requiring processes.

Marked by teacher Ross Robertson 01/03/2013

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