• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism (p4) Explain the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism (m1) Introduction In this assignment I will describe how energy works in the body and why we need energy. I will also link this to the three body systems relating to energy. The three body systems I will be discussing: 1. Respiratory 2. Digestive 3. Cardiovascular What is Energy? Energy is made up of glucose + oxygen, ATP and ADP (adenosine triphosphate). Energy is measured in kilojoules or calories. Image form: (http://sciencenavigators.blogspot.com/2009/11/cellular-respiration-inside-of-me.html) APT /ADP There are three sources of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's main energy source on the cellular level. 1. ATP-PC system (phosphogen system) this system is used for very short durations of up to 10 seconds. The ATP system doesn't use oxygen and doesn't produce lactic acid. This is the primary system behind very short, powerful movements. For example power lifting, golf swing. 2. Anaerobic system (lactic acid system) the anaerobic supplies energy for exercise lasting less than 2 minutes. This system is also known as the glycolytic system. This system would be used for activities such as a 400m sprint. 3. Aerobic system- this is a long duration of energy system. Doing 5 minutes of exercise the O� system is the main functioning system. ...read more.

Middle

* This is where gas exchange takes place - oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli. Alveoli * Gas exchange The surface of alveoli is thin and moist. It is like this so that gases can pass through or be exchanged easily. Surface size means how large the surface of the alveoli is. Alveoli are smaller than grains of salt and there are 300 million of them in the lungs. Alveoli have a very large surface area in total; plenty of room for gas exchange. The surfaces of the alveoli are covered with capillaries. These are narrow blood vessels which are one cell thick. Oxygen is passed from the alveoli into the bloodstream, which then distributes it to cells where it is used to unlock energy from food. The blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product from the oxygen combusting with food in cells, back to the capillaries, where it goes back through the walls of the alveoli and is breathed out when you exhale, as waste. Blood flows into the lungs from around the body. It carries carbon dioxide produced by respiration in the cells of the body. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli. Then it is breathed out of the body. Oxygen is breathed into the lungs. It dissolves in the water lining of the alveoli. ...read more.

Conclusion

The two ventricles pump the blood out of the heart. The Valves will prevent the blood from flowing backwards. The septum separates the two sides of the heart. The heart has four chambers Arteries * Carry blood away from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs) * Have thick muscular walls * Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen) * Contain blood under high pressure Veins * Carry blood to the heart (always de-oxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart) * Have thin walls * Have larger internal lumen * Contain blood under low pressure * Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards Capillaries * Found in the muscles and lungs * Microscopic - one cell thick * Very low blood pressure * Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood Blood has four key components: Plasma * Fluid part of blood * Carries carbon dioxide, hormones and waste Red blood cells * Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen * Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red blood cells are made. White blood cells * Protect the body by fighting disease * Made in the long bones Platelets * Clump together to form clots * Protect the body by stopping bleeding Images from: www.google.com/images ?? ?? ?? ?? Michaela O'Connor unit 5 P4, M1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

The essay sets out to explain the role of energy in the human body - where the body obtains its energy supply from and what activities the energy is required for. The writer partially succeeds in this aim, giving insights into respiration - the process which supplies energy in the form of ATP. The essay explains the role of three body systems in enabling all cells in the body to carry out respiration.

However, the title of the essay specifies 'energy metabolism'. This encompasses not only the release of energy from glucose (respiration) but also the roles of ATP in the body, i.e. for what purposes does the body need energy? Little mention was made of work - those cellular activities which require energy (ATP).
The writer tends to provide the reader with too much information on the three selected systems, much of which is not relevant to energy metabolism.
This topic needed a sequential approach to the energy 'story', starting with a clear definition of energy metabolism (both anabolism and catabolism); then looking at how cells acquire their oxygen and glucose to respire; and finally, an account of work in the body, i.e. the uses of ATP to run energy-requiring processes.

Marked by teacher Ross Robertson 01/03/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast

    5 star(s)

    of the mitochondrion. During this reaction a six carbon chain (citrate) is formed when coenzyme A delivers an acetyl group to oxaloacetate. Then the citrate goes under fewer changes into isocitrate then this diffuses out carbon dioxide while hydrogen is also removed by NAD to produce reduced NAD.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of different sugars on respiration in yeast.

    5 star(s)

    After I had heated the yeast and sugar to the same temperature and filled the burette with 50cm3 of water, I used a graduated pipette to put the different ratios of yeast and sugar into a boiling tube. As soon as I had done this, I put a bung in the boiling tube which was connected to a rubber tube.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Measurments of boby temperature, heart rate and breathing rate

    3 star(s)

    Like the other 2 experiments I checked my temperature at rest which was 37, this is the average human body temperature. I done my exercise like before for 5 minutes and sat down then I got my temperature checked and my results show me that it was 37.5 kept checking

  2. What effect does substrate have on respiration in yeast?

    This is because enzymes are involved in breaking down respiratory substrates. High temperatures will result in them denaturing and could prevent respiration, so a water bath will be used. Volume of coloured water in the inverted graduated cylinder Each time the experiment is carried out fill the graduated cylinder right

  1. An essay to describe the different ways in which organisms use ATP.

    Active transport requires energy to enable the cell in moving molecules against a concentration gradient. Active transport enables a cell to maintain a lower concentration of sodium inside the cell, and also enables a cell to accumulate certain nutrient inside the cell at concentrations much higher than the extracellular concentrations.

  2. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Because we are dealing with enzyme the above information is relevant to the investigation we are carrying out. This is because it informs us about how specific an enzyme can be because of its active site which tells us that the lipase in our experiment will only break down the fat molecules in the milk and not the protein molecules.

  1. Explain how the digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems are interrelated

    respiratory tract have the ability to produce large amounts of mucous that acts as a defence mechanism getting rid of the micro- organism in the body.

  2. Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate

    If the pH falls below 7.4 (acidic) the cells cause hyperventilation, whereas an alkaline pH (above 7.4) causes inhibition of the respiratory centre. During exercise when the carbon dioxide level in the blood increases, there is a corresponding rise in the CSF (as well as hydrogen ions and bicarbonate).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work