# Design an Experiment to Determine the Effects of Copper Sulphate Concentration on the Germination of Broad Bean Seeds

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Design an Experiment to Determine the Effects of Copper Sulphate Concentration on the Germination of Broad Bean Seeds Laura Cloete Index Page/s Aim - 1 Introduction - 1-7 Null Hypothesis - 8 Alternative Hypothesis - 8 Variables - 8 Apparatus - 9 Method - 9-10 Safety - 10 Fig 8: Table Showing Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 11 Calculating the Standard Deviation for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 12-16 Fig 9: Table Showing Standard Deviation of Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 17 Calculating the Standard Error for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 18-20 Calculating the Upper and Lower Limits (Error Bars) for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 21-23 Index Page/s Fig 10: Table Showing Standard Error and Upper and Lower Limits of Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 24 Calculating the Log Values of Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data - 25 Fig 11: Graph Showing Mean Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) with Upper and Lower Limits - Raw Data - 26 Fig 12: Table Showing Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Anomalous Data - 27 Calculating the Standard Deviation for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Anomalous Data - 28 Calculating the Standard Error for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Anomalous Data - 29 Calculating the Upper and Lower Limits (Error Bars) for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Anomalous Data - 30 Fig 13: Table Showing Standard Deviation of Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) ...read more.

Middle

0.000 0 0.000 Note - The mean values and standard deviation have been shown to 3 decimal places, full values were used in calculations Calculating the Standard Error for each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data The standard error is another important measurement of spread; it shows how certain it is that the calculated sample mean is the same as the mean of the population sampled from. Each sample of a population would not have the same mean; this is due to chance or variation. To make the sample mean as close to the actual mean a large sample of a population is studied. Where: * Beaker 1 - 0.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 2 - 0.06 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 3 - 0.60 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 4 - 6.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 5 - 60.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 6 - 600.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 7 - 6000.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) * Beaker 8 - 60000.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) Calculating the Upper and Lower Limits (Error Bars) for each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) - Raw Data We can be 95% confident that the actual mean of the population lies between the calculated upper and lower limits. Each sample of a population will not have the same mean. The upper and lower limits for each concentration are found by: 1. Multiplying the Standard Error (for that concentration) by 1.96 2. Then adding or subtracting this value from the mean (for that concentration) * Beaker 1 - 0.00 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) 0 x 1.96 = 0 Therefore: mean +/- 0 Upper Limit : 10 + 0 = 0 Lower Limit : 10 - 0 = 0 * Beaker 2 - 0.06 Concentration of Cu2+ ions (mg/l) ...read more.

Conclusion

Appendix Copper accounts for 4-30ppm (parts per million) of the approximate percent of dry weight in most plants (Raven and Johnson 1999). Assuming that this is a tolerable or optimum amount of copper, the broad bean seeds should germinate best at this concentration. I will use a copper sulphate solution as it is used in industry and agriculture and it is readily available. To find the optimum concentration of copper sulphate solution the ppm are converted to mg/l as follows: * 1ppm is equal to 1mg/kg in soil * 1ml of water is equal to 1g * Therefore 1ppm is equal to 1mg/l Using the middle value of the approximate dry weight of copper in most plants should provide an average concentration. 30 - 4 = 26 26 � 2 = 13 Therefore 13ppm * The optimum copper concentration should be around 13mg per litre of water. Different concentrations of copper sulphate solution need to be made up in order to investigate the effect of copper sulphate on germination. To do this, perform a serial dilution. The concentrations of solutions we require are as follows: Solution Copper Sulphate Concentration (mg/l) A 130000 B 13000 C 1300 D 130 E 13 F 0.13 G 0.013 H 0.00 The serial dilution should be performed as follows: Solution A 200ml of 130000mg/l copper sulphate solution Solution B 20ml of solution A and 180ml of distilled water Solution C 20ml of solution B and 180ml of distilled water Solution D 20ml of solution C and 180ml of distilled water Solution E 20ml of solution D and 180ml of distilled water Solution F 20ml of solution E and 180ml of distilled water Solution G 20ml of solution F and 180ml of distilled water By removing 20ml of the previous solution, each beaker will contain 180ml. Discard 20ml of solution G so it too will contain 180ml of solution. Solution B is one tenth as strong as solution A and so on. To make solution H add 180ml of distilled water to the final beaker. ...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

## Found what you're looking for?

- Start learning 29% faster today
- 150,000+ documents available
- Just £6.99 a month