• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Determination of calcium and magnesium in water by EDTA

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Determination of calcium and magnesium in water by EDTA Water hardness is a very important quality and is one of the most commonly determined water quality parameters. Metal ions present in water contribute to the hardness of water. Cations of Calcium and Magnesium are the main contributors, and to a lesser extent cations of barium and strontium. The Mg� and Ca� ions are therefore the measure of the hardness of water. These ions present in water are usually from water sources that originate from limestone or chalk geological formations. They often accompany the alkalinity ions: carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide. Thus the alkalinity of a water sample can be a reasonable guide to water hardness. Water hardness is an important quality used for municipal or industrial purposes. A certain degree is necessary in municipal water systems to prevent corrosion of pipes. Hard water causes curdy precipitate with soap, therefore reducing its ability to solubilize dirt. Ca� + H C-(CH ) -COO �[H C-(CH ) ...read more.

Middle

Metal chelates are very important compounds in nature, and are common as a means of transporting metals in the environment. The indicators that are added in this experiment (Erichrome Black T and Hydroxy Napthol Blue) also form complexes with the metal ions. These complexes are weaker than the ones formed with EDTA. As the EDTA is added, the indicator begins to complex the metal ions. The end point is reached when the EDTA begins to take the metal ions from the weak indicator metal ion complex. Causing a colour change from red to blue. Beautiful Titration at PH 10 1st 2nd 18.8 19.2 Average titre= 19cm� Titration at PH 12 1st 2nd 5.8 6.2 Average titre = 6cm� Total concentration of metal ions from titration at ph10 Concentration of EDTA = 0.01moldm � Number of moles = concentration x volume (average titre) = 0.01 x 0.019 = 1.9x10 moles As the EDTA reacts with the metal ions on a 1:1 ratio, there was am equal number of metal ions used. ...read more.

Conclusion

0 20 40 60 80 100 Concentration 0 21 42 63 82 100 Unknown absorbance = 55 therefore concentration = 53 Mg� Absorbance 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Concentration 0 0.043 0.046 0.051 0.055 Absorbance of unknown = 0.045 so therefore concentration = 1.25 Discussion 1) I prefer the ASS and FP technique due to it reducing human error and giving more accurate results. 2) The purpose of the filter is so you can filter out the substance you want and means less impurities 3) Mg� can not be determined by titration at ph12 because the mg2+ reacts to form mg(oh)2 and must therefore be neutralised to stop this as the reaction obscures end point. Mg can't be determined by flame photometry as it's a low temperature flame so does not give off ionisation of Mg ions. 4) AAS differs from FP in the following 3 ways: * Flame photometer is free from ionisation interference because the degree of ionisation increases for the alkali metals with increased temperature * AAS uses a plasma instead of a flame * The flame photometer is free from spectral interferences - low flame temperature means only a few emission lines are obtained from flame. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    out the average titre for the sample of orange, lime and lemon from the titration. To work out the average titre I will be using the 3 consecutive results that were in 0.1cm3 of each other. First of all, I will add my 3 consecutive titres together, and then I

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    � (conc. H2SO4 catalyst) �. C2H4(g) + H2O(g) -- Concentrated sulfuric acid acts as a catalyst and dehydrating agent -- The best yield is achieved using 1:4 ratio of ethanol and sulfuric acid -- The catalyst absorbs the water produced to prevent the reverse reaction -- The greater proportion of

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF AN ORGANIC UNKNOWN

    Ingestion can cause internal damage. If swallowed, wash out mouth and drink a glass or two of water. Seek medical attention as soon as possible. If inhaled, remove victim and put where there's fresh air. If chemical gets into eyes, wash off with plenty of water and seek medical help.

  2. analysing the unknown compound A

    Test for ester Although there is very little information on testing for ester using information for Essential A2 Chemistry Book I found that esters can be hydrolysed with NaOH when heated in a water bath. Subsequently if I add phenylalanine indicator to the NaOH before I use it to hydrolyse the ester then the mixture will turn pink.

  1. Finding the concentration of an acid sample

    That means it would make sense to use a molarity of solution that was in the middle of that. So I have decided to make my Na2CO3 solution 0.1 mol dm-3. So now that I have the number of moles needed I can work out how many grams I need to dissolve.

  2. Free essay

    Group II metals

    The colour changes were recoded. The experiment with Barium oxide was still completed in the fume cupboard. Experiment 3: Solubility's of the hydroxides and carbonates Equipments: Test tubes Disposable pipette Chemicals: Magnesium nitrate solution Calcium nitrate solution Barium nitrate solution Sodium hydroxide solution Sodium carbonate solution About 1 cm depth of magnesium nitrate solution was poured into two test tubes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work