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Diabetes mellitus.

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Introduction

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the amount of glucose in the blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly. Glucose comes from the digestion of starchy foods such as bread or potatoes, from sugar and other sweet foods, and from the liver which makes it and passes it into the blood stream. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps the glucose to enter the cells where it is used as fuel by the body. The main symptoms of untreated diabetes are increased thirst, passing large amounts of urine, extreme tiredness, blurred vision, and weight loss. Insulin dependent diabetes (also known as Type 1 diabetes) develops when there is a severe lack of insulin in the body because most or all of the cells which make it have been destroyed. ...read more.

Middle

In diabetes, poor control of the glucose levels can make this worse and can also damage the back of the eye. Therefore it is important that residents with diabetes have an annual medical examination that includes a check on eyesight and an examination of the back of the eye. The check-up should also include blood pressure and weight, a urine test and examination of the feet. People with diabetes have an increased risk of poor circulation and reduced feeling in their feet. This is why good foot care is especially important for the older person with diabetes. It is very important to avoid damage to the skin from incorrect toenail cutting. Poorly fitting footwear or from exposure to heat or to water which is too hot. ...read more.

Conclusion

of blood. The most common causes of hypoglycaemia are missing a meal, more exercise than usual. As well as missing a snack, too much insulin/tablets and excessive alcohol especially on an empty stomach. The symptoms could be sweating, shaking, hunger, blurred vision, feeling sick, loss of concentration and aggressive behaviour. The remedy for this could be a small glass of a sweet drink such as lucozade, coca cola, or lemonade (not a 'diet' drink). Hyperglycaemia or high blood glucose is the technical term for a blood glucose level of over 8.0 mmol/l. Many people with diabetes have blood glucose levels over this level without experiencing symptoms. Symptoms are likely to occur only when the glucose level has been over about 15 mmol/l for some time. The symptoms of hyperglycaemia are the same as those of untreated diabetes they include increased thirst, passing large amounts of urine, and extreme tiredness. ...read more.

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