• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Diabetes Mellitus

Extracts from this document...


Alex Mansfield Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is derived from the Greek word meaning "a passer through or a siphon"; Mellitus comes from the Greek word "sweet". Apparently the Greeks named it thus because of the excessive amounts of urine a diabetic would pass when in a hyperglycaemic state. Diabetes Mellitus comes in two forms, both of which result in the disturbance of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Insulin is a hormone that enables the body to control blood glucose levels. It is a central hormone in controlling metabolism. It is produced in the endocrine part of the pancreas, which consists of very small clumps of specialised cells (the Islets of Langerhans) spread throughout the organ. Hyperglycaemia results if there is not enough insulin to cause cells to absorb the glucose from the blood or if they don't respond to the insulin. ...read more.


Cells such as the muscle and liver cells that require insulin to permit the take up of glucose from the blood are unable to do so, resulting in a relative insulin deficiency. The main characteristics of this disease are 1) decreased insulin secretion 2) increased lipolysis (the hydrolysis of lipids) 3) increased hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis - the conversion of fat, protein and lactate molecules into glucose by the liver.) 4) decreased muscular glucose uptake. All these contribute to the development of hyperglycaemia, which often goes unnoticed for years. Diabetes Mellitus type 2 seems to be genetically inherited, although other factors such as obesity increase the risk of developing it. The first symptoms of diabetes are related to the direct effects of Hyperglycaemia. ...read more.


Distinct types of this are diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy, the damage in both these cases seem to be linked to high glucose levels, which seem to have changed the behaviour of various proteins and so the tissues they are present in. Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damage to the nerve fibres which affects sensation in the feet and lower legs and eventually in the fingers and hands, as feeling decreases so does reaction to damage e.g. Blisters, burns and cuts combined with slower healing thus increasing the risk of serious infection. Diabetic retinopathy is caused by damage to small blood vessels in the retina by high glucose levels. Initially these vessels become leaky, and may become blocked leading to several other difficulties such as swelling in the blood vessels resulting in haemorrhaging of the retina. Alternatively blocked vessels starve the retina of oxygen causing growth of abnormal growth of vessels in the retina. Both of these conditions can lead to blindness. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    The sperm cells then travel from the vagina through the mucus in the cervix and into the uterus and finally into the fallopian tubes by flagellation. The movement of the sperm in the genital tract is also assisted by the contractions of the vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    You should also try to eat three main meals and two to three snacks daily. Specific dietary advice can be obtained from the dietitian attached to the diabetic clinic. What can I do to avoid Type 1 diabetes? At present, this type of diabetes is not preventable but many scientific

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    Anomalies could have only occurred in a few places because this experiment was fairly accurate (borne out by the results) and most would have been due to inaccuracies in measurement and temperature. For example, there was no way of checking to see that the apparatus was airtight and that gas

  2. The formation of urine.

    In this procedure an artery is surgically connected to a vein with a short piece of special tubing placed under the skin.

  1. The Endocrine System

    amounts of fluid in order to maintain production of large amounts of dilute urine. Diabetes insipidus can be caused either by a defect of the pituitary leading to ADH insufficiency, or by a lack of response to ADH by the kidneys.

  2. The Skeletal and Muscular System

    Synchondroses have hyaline cartilage that joins the bones together, the joint between the hip bone and sacrum is an example of synchondrosis. Whilst in a symphyses the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but it is the broad flat disc of fibrocartilage that joins the bones together.

  1. Urinary system

    If the alkali reserve is reduced, the blood becomes acidic and this condition is known as acidosis. The normal level in blood is 135 to 147mmol/l. By excreting acid salts and other acidic substances, the kidneys spare the use of the alkali reserve, which would otherwise have been used to neutralise them (Smith, T.

  2. Blood System Assignemnt

    The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place through the thin capillary wall. The red blood cells inside the capillary release their oxygen which passes through the wall and into the surrounding tissue. The tissue releases its waste products, like carbon dioxide, which passes through the wall and into the red blood cells.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work