• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Diabetes Mellitus

Extracts from this document...


Alex Mansfield Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is derived from the Greek word meaning "a passer through or a siphon"; Mellitus comes from the Greek word "sweet". Apparently the Greeks named it thus because of the excessive amounts of urine a diabetic would pass when in a hyperglycaemic state. Diabetes Mellitus comes in two forms, both of which result in the disturbance of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Insulin is a hormone that enables the body to control blood glucose levels. It is a central hormone in controlling metabolism. It is produced in the endocrine part of the pancreas, which consists of very small clumps of specialised cells (the Islets of Langerhans) spread throughout the organ. Hyperglycaemia results if there is not enough insulin to cause cells to absorb the glucose from the blood or if they don't respond to the insulin. ...read more.


Cells such as the muscle and liver cells that require insulin to permit the take up of glucose from the blood are unable to do so, resulting in a relative insulin deficiency. The main characteristics of this disease are 1) decreased insulin secretion 2) increased lipolysis (the hydrolysis of lipids) 3) increased hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis - the conversion of fat, protein and lactate molecules into glucose by the liver.) 4) decreased muscular glucose uptake. All these contribute to the development of hyperglycaemia, which often goes unnoticed for years. Diabetes Mellitus type 2 seems to be genetically inherited, although other factors such as obesity increase the risk of developing it. The first symptoms of diabetes are related to the direct effects of Hyperglycaemia. ...read more.


Distinct types of this are diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy, the damage in both these cases seem to be linked to high glucose levels, which seem to have changed the behaviour of various proteins and so the tissues they are present in. Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damage to the nerve fibres which affects sensation in the feet and lower legs and eventually in the fingers and hands, as feeling decreases so does reaction to damage e.g. Blisters, burns and cuts combined with slower healing thus increasing the risk of serious infection. Diabetic retinopathy is caused by damage to small blood vessels in the retina by high glucose levels. Initially these vessels become leaky, and may become blocked leading to several other difficulties such as swelling in the blood vessels resulting in haemorrhaging of the retina. Alternatively blocked vessels starve the retina of oxygen causing growth of abnormal growth of vessels in the retina. Both of these conditions can lead to blindness. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Biology. London: Harper Collins Publishers Limited. EHD. (2009). Ovary. Available: http://www.ehd.org/images/prenatal_article/ovary-adv.jpg. Last Accessed 04 Feb 2009. E-Rham. (2009). Testes. Available: http://www.e-rham.com/img/atcl4_testes.gif. Last Accessed 03 Feb 2009. Kent, M . (2000). Advanced Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tortora, G.J. and Derrickson, B.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    You should also try to eat three main meals and two to three snacks daily. Specific dietary advice can be obtained from the dietitian attached to the diabetic clinic. What can I do to avoid Type 1 diabetes? At present, this type of diabetes is not preventable but many scientific

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    monosaccharide carbohydrate which means it only has one molecule in it's structure. It is a fundamental ingredient in respiration and begins producing energy almost immediately. There are no glycosidic bonds attaching it to other molecules which have to be broken before the covalent bonds, and therefore the covalent bonds are broken quickly, producing CO2 molecules straight away.

  2. The Skeletal and Muscular System

    Movement. Movement, of either the whole body or a single limb, is possible due to the contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles that are attached to the bones of the skeleton. When these muscles contract, they pull the bones to produce movement.

  1. Blood System Assignemnt

    100 4 years 100 6 years 100 8 years 100 12 years 85 Adult 60-100 Our pulse rate increases or decreases in reaction to certain conditions, for instance the pulse rate will increase during exercise as we need more oxygen to circulate around our body to help the muscles and

  2. The Endocrine System

    In contrast, other glands including sweat glands, salivary glands, and glands of the gastrointestinal system secrete the substances they produce through ducts, and those substances are used in the vicinity of the gland. The regulation of body functions by the endocrine system depends on the existence of specific receptor cells

  1. Diabetes Mellitus

    Other symptoms include blurred vision, rapid weight loss and fatigue. In type 2 diabetes (otherwise known as non- insulin dependent or late onset diabetes) the body can still produce insulin (often in relatively large quantities), but do so inadequately for their body's needs - in the face of insulin resistance - the decreased sensitivity of hepatocyte insulin receptors.

  2. Urinary system

    Water, glucose, urea, proteins, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride ions and other substances are filtered from the blood into proximal convoluted tubules by a net filtration pressure (Solomon, E. et al 1990). The amount of filtrate that is produced by the kidneys is known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work