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Discover how temperature will effect the speed in which the enzyme Catalase will react with Hydrogen Peroxide.

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Introduction

Biology Coursework Investigating the effect on the enzyme Catalase Aim To discover how temperature will effect the speed in which the enzyme Catalase will react with Hydrogen Peroxide. Background Information Individual enzymes are named by adding ase to the name of the substrate with which they react. The enzyme that controls urea decomposition is called urease; those that control protein hydrolyses are known as proteinases. Some enzymes, such as the proteinases trypsin and pepsin, retain the names used before this nomenclature was adopted. * They are all proteins * They are specific in their action, one enzyme speeding up one reaction only. * They work within only a narrow range of acidity or alkalinity. * Heat alters enzymes so they work at different rates. At certain high temperatures enzymes denature. * They can be used over and over again. * They all require water before being able to function. * Living cells are the only producers of enzymes. * The enzyme molecule is only temporarily changed during its action and can be used repeatedly. Large quantities of enzymes are not necessary. * They work within a narrow range of temperature. Enzymes are typical catalysts: they are capable of increasing the rate of reaction without being consumed in the process. Some enzymes, such as pepsin and trypsin, which bring about the digestion of meat, control many different reactions, whereas others, such as urease, are extremely specific and may accelerate only one reaction. Still others release energy to make the heart beat and the lungs expand and contract. Many facilitate the conversion of sugar and foods into the various substances the body requires for tissue-building, the replacement of blood cells, and the release of chemical energy to move muscles. Pepsin, trypsin, and some other enzymes possess, in addition, the peculiar property known as autocatalysis, which permits them to cause their own formation from an inert precursor called zymogen. ...read more.

Middle

The different temperatures I will be using are: 20 (Room), 40, 60 and 80�C. I will take results from these temperatures 3 times and then derive an average result from them. I will measure out all the products using the right equipment and using a level table to pour the liquid hydrogen peroxide to ensure it is accurate. Safety To ensure safety I will follow the following rules: * I will tuck in my tie, and remove my blazer. * I will wear gloves when handling the hydrogen peroxide. * I will wear goggles throughout the whole experiment. * I will take great caution when using the hot water baths. * The hydrogen peroxide I use will be of a low concentration as it is a very violent substance and may blister the skin if put into contact in an accident. Also if a high concentration of it gets hot if may become more harmful. Results Time Taken to collect 10ml of O2 (sec's) Temp (�C) 1 2 3 Average 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10 236.0 255.0 251.0 247.3 20 165.0 183.0 154.0 167.3 30 90.0 97.0 86.0 91.0 40 52.0 60.0 57.0 56.3 50 122.0 143.0 286.0 183.7 60 - - - - 70 - - - - From these results I can now work out the reaction rate for the experiment. They are as follows: Temp (�C) Volume of O2 given off Time taken Reaction Rate 10 10 cm3 ? 247.3 seconds = 0.040 cm3/sec 20 10 cm3 ? 167.3 seconds = 0.059 cm3/sec 30 10 cm3 ? 91 seconds = 0.109 cm3/sec 40 10 cm3 ? 56.3 seconds = 0.177 cm3/sec 50 10 cm3 ? 183.6 seconds = 0.054 cm3/sec As you can see from this table the highest rate of activity is at the temperature of 40�C. These results show this very clearly, that as the temperature increases towards 40�C the rate of reaction of the enzyme slowly increases, but as soon as the temperature reaches 40�C the rate of reaction peaks, and from that temperature higher the rate of reaction rapidly decreases. ...read more.

Conclusion

However this conclusion may have differed if we had conducted the experiment at narrower margins of temperature. We may have found it to be at 35 or 45�C. We noticed an anomaly in our results. At 50�C on our 3rd test the time taken to collect 10ml of oxygen was extremely high. Higher than the other two results we gained. This then increased our average. However it did not alter the trend too much as the other two results were very much the same. To avoid a result like this maybe two people should be responsible for timing and taking readings as they may have been a delay in taking the result from lack of concentration etc. Investigation variations This experiment went very well overall, although the factors I have discussed above did not seem to accredit the method very well. The major weakness with the method we used was the loss of gas during the process of connecting the bung to the conical flask. So the best way to solve this problem, is not to adapt the current method, but to get rid of it. I think that an alternative method of conducting this experiment would be to measure something other than the gas release. An idea is to measure the weight difference. This alternative method would be as follows: * Place a conical flask containing a fixed amount of Potato in onto the scales. * Take the weight of the flask and contents & add it to the weight of the fixed amount of H2O2. * Keeping the conical flask on the scales add the H2O2 to the flask. Every 10 seconds you can take the reading of the weight as it decreases on the scales. From this I can work out the weight difference. This difference will represent the content given off as gas. From this I can derive a reaction rate. Below is an example diagram of this method: Page 1 of 10 ...read more.

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