• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss how the structure of cell organelles is related to their functions.

Extracts from this document...


Discuss how the structure of cell organelles is related to their functions. Cells are the basic units of life. The structure and function of the cell is intimately related. There are tow major types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. An organelle is defined as an internal, membrane bound sac or compartment that serves one or more functions inside the cell. These functions are mostly specific metabolic functions. Organelles undergo a process of separating chemical reactions. Generally, cell organelles are found more in eukaryotes compared to prokaryotes. One of the main advantages of partitioning the cell interior with these cell organelles is that numerous activities can occur simultaneously in a very confined space. There are different numbers and variation of organelle found in different cells, which is related to their cellular function. The most important cell organelle is the nucleus. There are two main functions of the nucleus. Firstly, it segregates all the DNA molecules from the cytoplasm. ...read more.


Each mitochondrion has a double-membrane system. The inner membrane is folded repeatedly and it is also known as cristae. The outer membrane faces the cytoplasm. This complex system creates two divisions. In the outer division, enzymes and other proteins stockpile hydrogen ions. These ions then flow into the inner compartment. The energy inherent creates ATP-formation. Hydrogen binds with oxygen to produce the end product, water. There is another section of organelles. It is known as the endomembrane system. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the main constituents in this section. ER is usually described as stacks of flattened cells. There are two types of ER, smooth and rough. The main difference between these two types is that in the rough ER structure, ribosomes are attached on the surface, and there is absence of it in the smooth ER. In animal cells, the ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and it lengthens to the cytoplasm. ...read more.


This entire process is called photosynthesis. The shape of a chloroplast is often a disc or an oval shape. There are two outer membrane layers in the semifluid interior, which is also known as stroma. Thylakoid membrane is the inner membrane in the stroma which forms a single compartment. There are other additional organelles that are found in certain kind of cells. The main function of these organelles is movement of the whole cell. Some cells have flagella (singular, flagellum) or cilia (singular, cilium). Flagella are longer and less abundant on cells if compared to cilium. Both this structures beat by a sliding mechanism that occurs at the minus end of a microtubule. A microtubule helps in internal arrangement that reposition cell structures and organelles into distinct locations. The 'false feet' also known as pseudopods that is found in amoebas, macrophages and many other free-living cells. The last example is the centriole. A centriole is a barrel-shaped microtubule organizing centre (MTOC), which aids in cell division. It has an array of nine pairs of microtubules plus a central pair that are internal and cylindrical. Dipesh Remais 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

A basic but factually accurate overview of the structure of the cells' organelles in relation to their function.

Some of the organelles could have benefited from more detailed description of their functions, for example the description of the function of the cell membrane was very brief.

This is a good report.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 18/07/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Relating the structure and function of cell organelles

    5 star(s)

    The rER are similar with ribosomes adhere on the cytoplasmic surface. However, they have different functions. The sER is the site where carbohydrates, steroids, lipids and other non-protein products are synthesized, secreted and stored; whereas the rough synthesis protein. The coded information in nucleus moved to ribosomes on the rER and into it through cisternae.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Cellular Structure and Function

    5 star(s)

    There are three major types of muscle tissue in the body; these are smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle fibres. 1. Smooth Muscle Fibre Smooth muscles fibres are predominantly located in walls of organs such as the stomach and intestines. The fibres slowly and involuntarily contract to help move food through the digestive system.

  1. Free essay

    Food Group tables lipids proteins carbohydrates

    Proteins are formed by the linking of different combinations of the twenty common amino acids found in food. Of these, ten are essential for the human in the synthesis of body proteins (eight are essential throughout a human's life, whereas two become essential during periods of rapid growth, such as during infancy).

  2. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    By cutting those to the same length the surface area to volume ratio of these root vegetable cylinders will be kept constant. SAFETY * Clean any spillages immediately, keep the paper towels close by so you don't have to move around the room reducing chance of collision in the class.

  1. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    Next measure the mass of each parsnip cylinder using an electronic balance, record the 'before' mass of each parsnip cylinder in the results table and add one cylinder to each McCartney bottle. 11) Repeat step 2 to step 11 for the carrot, potato and Swede.

  2. A2 coursework- The effects of bile salts on digestion of fat

    * Volume of lipase-If there is more lipase used then this will increase the rate of reaction so there will be a faster breakdown of food substance. * Volume of food substance- If more food substance is added then this will increase the amount of fat so then there will

  1. Enzyme activities

    The same steps were repeated for the other 2 fruits. See figure1. 3. The three labeled test tubes were put into a 90 oC water bath for 5 mintues.

  2. Molecules and cells - Edexcel GCE Biology Revision Notes

    are made: - Stem cell therapy can be used to save many lives, for example, many people needing an organ transplant die before a door organ becomes available. Stem cells can be sued to grow organs for those awaiting transplants.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work