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Discuss how the structure of cell organelles is related to their functions.

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Introduction

Discuss how the structure of cell organelles is related to their functions. Cells are the basic units of life. The structure and function of the cell is intimately related. There are tow major types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. An organelle is defined as an internal, membrane bound sac or compartment that serves one or more functions inside the cell. These functions are mostly specific metabolic functions. Organelles undergo a process of separating chemical reactions. Generally, cell organelles are found more in eukaryotes compared to prokaryotes. One of the main advantages of partitioning the cell interior with these cell organelles is that numerous activities can occur simultaneously in a very confined space. There are different numbers and variation of organelle found in different cells, which is related to their cellular function. The most important cell organelle is the nucleus. There are two main functions of the nucleus. Firstly, it segregates all the DNA molecules from the cytoplasm. ...read more.

Middle

Each mitochondrion has a double-membrane system. The inner membrane is folded repeatedly and it is also known as cristae. The outer membrane faces the cytoplasm. This complex system creates two divisions. In the outer division, enzymes and other proteins stockpile hydrogen ions. These ions then flow into the inner compartment. The energy inherent creates ATP-formation. Hydrogen binds with oxygen to produce the end product, water. There is another section of organelles. It is known as the endomembrane system. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the main constituents in this section. ER is usually described as stacks of flattened cells. There are two types of ER, smooth and rough. The main difference between these two types is that in the rough ER structure, ribosomes are attached on the surface, and there is absence of it in the smooth ER. In animal cells, the ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and it lengthens to the cytoplasm. ...read more.

Conclusion

This entire process is called photosynthesis. The shape of a chloroplast is often a disc or an oval shape. There are two outer membrane layers in the semifluid interior, which is also known as stroma. Thylakoid membrane is the inner membrane in the stroma which forms a single compartment. There are other additional organelles that are found in certain kind of cells. The main function of these organelles is movement of the whole cell. Some cells have flagella (singular, flagellum) or cilia (singular, cilium). Flagella are longer and less abundant on cells if compared to cilium. Both this structures beat by a sliding mechanism that occurs at the minus end of a microtubule. A microtubule helps in internal arrangement that reposition cell structures and organelles into distinct locations. The 'false feet' also known as pseudopods that is found in amoebas, macrophages and many other free-living cells. The last example is the centriole. A centriole is a barrel-shaped microtubule organizing centre (MTOC), which aids in cell division. It has an array of nine pairs of microtubules plus a central pair that are internal and cylindrical. Dipesh Remais 1 ...read more.

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A basic but factually accurate overview of the structure of the cells' organelles in relation to their function.

Some of the organelles could have benefited from more detailed description of their functions, for example the description of the function of the cell membrane was very brief.

This is a good report.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 18/07/2013

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