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Discuss human chromosome and try to explain their structure and functions in human body and in part 2 we look at a genetic disorder, sickle cell anemia.

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Biology Assignment Name: Behrooz Khoshooee Student Number: 283644 Biology, November 2005 Introduction: This paper has two parts, in part one we discuss about human chromosome and try to explain their structure and functions in human body and in second part we look at a genetic disorder, sickle cell anemia. We will investigate what affect it has in human body and how one person could get this genetic disorder. Part 1 Nucleus Nucleus contains the DNA in chromosomes and therefore it is the primary source of information for controlling the metabolism, reproduction of cell and inheritance. Using a microscope we could see a dark network in nucleus which is called chromatin. Chromatin consists of a complex of DNA coated in protein, which during cell division it becomes structured and turn into separate packages of chromosomes (Czepulkowski 2001). (1) Nuclear envelope (2) Ribosomes (3) Nuclear pore complexes (4) Nucleolus (5) Chromatin (6) Nucleus (7) Endoplasmic reticulum (8) Nucleoplasm Chromosome The number of chromosomes is always the same in each type of species i.e. in human cells there are 46 chromosomes and it would be same for everyone. Because chromosomes are paired, the possibility of having an odd number of chromosomes is zero, so chromosomes number is always an even number. The chromosomes pairs are called homologous pairs which means similar in structure, one from each parent (Murray 2001). ...read more.


The freed tRNA would move to cytoplasm for reuse. This process would go on until ribosome read the stop codon. Sometime more than one ribosome would be reading the same mRNA. This stage is called translation (Murray 2001). As we found out DNA is involve is producing protein and protein is needed for human body for growth or repairing and basically for maintaining the human body, which is one of the most important function of DNA. Although there is only 1.5% of human DNA which code for protein. Gene Another important function of chromosomes is being responsible for holding genes; they carry all the genetic information for humans. Gene is specific part of chromosome which establishes a specific characteristic of an organism i.e. their nature and development or the instructions for its cell growth and maintenance. A specific gene would appear always in the same place on the same chromosome and that position is called "locus". As we know the chromosomes are always paired and called homologous pairs. Therefore there are two copies of each gene, which line in the same position on the chromosomes or homologous pairs. The different type of genes is called "alleles" and there are two different types for each gene. If the two allele of the gene is the same, they are called "homozygous". ...read more.


There are things that patient could do to maintain a good health like nutrition, good hygiene, bed rest, protection against infections, and avoidance of other stresses. And regular visit to clinics that help people with sickle cell anemia problem is absolutely necessary for finding any problem at early stage and making sure that right action is taken. It was in 1995 that the first helpful drug for adult with sickle cell anemia was reported. This drug was a result of research conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and it was found out that if patient take a daily does of this drug, it would cut down the number of crisis and chest infection. Another research which has started in April 2005 at Nottingham University is to try to develop a new detector which it should allow doctors to accurately assess the severity of the disease. This detector would take images red blood cells from blood vessel under surface of skin. This should help doctors and give them the best and most accurate method to examine the patient. Conclusion Today, with good health care, many people with sickle cell anemia are living a better and much more productive lives and their quality of life have improved. In fact, in the past 30 years, the life expectancy of people with sickle cell anemia has increased. ...read more.

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