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Discuss the application of enzymes in biotechnological processes.

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Introduction

Rohit Gumber DISCUSS THE APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES. Enzymes are specialised substances, composed of polymers of amino acids, that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of many chemical reactions involved in many industrial processes and in the metabolism of living organisms. Enzymes have many practical uses, alcohol fermentation and other important industrial processes depend on the action of enzymes that are synthesised by the yeast and bacteria used in the production process. A number of enzymes are used for medical purposes, but the largest use for enzymes is in the manufacture of detergents and in the food industry. The following table shows the uses of enzymes in industry: Enzyme type Uses Proteases (60%) detergents, cheese Carbohydrates (25%) bread making Lipases (10%) detergents Glucose isomerase (5%) high-fructose syrup The main use for enzymes is in biological detergents. Their chief benefit is that they remove dirt of biological origin at lower temperature than would otherwise be required. This saves fuel and prevents damage to delicate fabrics. Since the 1960s an alkaline protease called subtilisin, secreted in large amounts from Bacillus subtilis, has been produced for use in washing powders. The enzymes in washing powders are thermostable although they would cease to be effective at very high temperatures. Today's biological detergents contain several enzymes: Proteolytic enzymes - these remove protein-based stains such as grass, blood, egg and human sweat. ...read more.

Middle

Whey syrup Lactose-reduced milk and dairy products Ice cream Greater sweeteners Removal of lactose for those who are lactose-intolerant Prevention of sandy texture caused by lactose crystals from milk Chymosin (Rennin) Cheese Coagulation of milk proteins Glucose isomerase High fructose syrup Conversion of glucose to fructose Glucose oxidase Fruit juices Removal of oxygen Invertase (Sucrase) Soft-centred sweets Liquefaction of sucrose Lipases Cheese Flavouring Flavour development Faster ripening Ester synthesis Papain Beer Removal of protein Pectinases Wine and fruit juice Coffee Citrus fruit Increased yield Extraction of the beans Biological peeling Proteases Caviar Bread, cakes and biscuits Meat Helps to separate fish eggs Gluten weakening Tenderisation Pectinases are essential for breaking down pectin in the processing of fruit to make juice. Pectin holds together cells of fruits and when the fruit is extracted this produces gels. The pectinases enable clear juice to be filtered off. Pectinases and other enzymes are now an integral part of fruit juice technology Clarification of fruit juices: e.g. apple juice; depectinised juices can also be concentrated without gelling and developing turbidity. Enzyme treatment of pulp: of soft fruit, red grapes, citrus and apples, for better release of juice (and coloured material); enzyme treatment of pulp of olives, palm fruit and coconut flesh to increase oil yield. Maceration of fruit and vegetables (disintegration by cell separation): to obtain nectar bases and baby foods. ...read more.

Conclusion

An example is lactase, this is very expensive and is immobilised on an inert material (e.g. porous beads). The substrate is passed over the enzyme, which is placed in a column. This method is used to make whey syrup, which is used in confectionery. Enzymes are widely used for analytical reasons. Many biological fluids such as blood are complex mixtures, and analysis of substances such as glucose requires specific, accurate and sensitive techniques. Enzymes are the basis for many tests for biochemical compounds. One of these is ELISA, which detects tiny amounts of proteins in biological fluids. ELISA is widely used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, where it can detect antigens and antibodies. It can also be used to detect hormone levels and in food quality control. Glucose levels in the blood can be detected glucose oxidase, which is used as a basis for a biosensor. The enzyme catalyses the reaction between glucose and oxygen to give gluconic acid. An oxygen electrode gives a measure of the oxygen consumption and therefore the glucose level in the blood, because the higher this is the more oxygen is consumed. Applications of biosensors include clinic testing and detention of toxins in food and water. Many diagnostic test strips that include enzymes have been developed for clinical tests. For instance, glucose in urine can be measured with test strips with glucose oxidase and peroxides immobilised on a cellulose pad. This pad changes colour and can be read off on a colour chart. ...read more.

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