• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the application of enzymes in biotechnological processes.

Extracts from this document...


Rohit Gumber DISCUSS THE APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES. Enzymes are specialised substances, composed of polymers of amino acids, that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of many chemical reactions involved in many industrial processes and in the metabolism of living organisms. Enzymes have many practical uses, alcohol fermentation and other important industrial processes depend on the action of enzymes that are synthesised by the yeast and bacteria used in the production process. A number of enzymes are used for medical purposes, but the largest use for enzymes is in the manufacture of detergents and in the food industry. The following table shows the uses of enzymes in industry: Enzyme type Uses Proteases (60%) detergents, cheese Carbohydrates (25%) bread making Lipases (10%) detergents Glucose isomerase (5%) high-fructose syrup The main use for enzymes is in biological detergents. Their chief benefit is that they remove dirt of biological origin at lower temperature than would otherwise be required. This saves fuel and prevents damage to delicate fabrics. Since the 1960s an alkaline protease called subtilisin, secreted in large amounts from Bacillus subtilis, has been produced for use in washing powders. The enzymes in washing powders are thermostable although they would cease to be effective at very high temperatures. Today's biological detergents contain several enzymes: Proteolytic enzymes - these remove protein-based stains such as grass, blood, egg and human sweat. ...read more.


Whey syrup Lactose-reduced milk and dairy products Ice cream Greater sweeteners Removal of lactose for those who are lactose-intolerant Prevention of sandy texture caused by lactose crystals from milk Chymosin (Rennin) Cheese Coagulation of milk proteins Glucose isomerase High fructose syrup Conversion of glucose to fructose Glucose oxidase Fruit juices Removal of oxygen Invertase (Sucrase) Soft-centred sweets Liquefaction of sucrose Lipases Cheese Flavouring Flavour development Faster ripening Ester synthesis Papain Beer Removal of protein Pectinases Wine and fruit juice Coffee Citrus fruit Increased yield Extraction of the beans Biological peeling Proteases Caviar Bread, cakes and biscuits Meat Helps to separate fish eggs Gluten weakening Tenderisation Pectinases are essential for breaking down pectin in the processing of fruit to make juice. Pectin holds together cells of fruits and when the fruit is extracted this produces gels. The pectinases enable clear juice to be filtered off. Pectinases and other enzymes are now an integral part of fruit juice technology Clarification of fruit juices: e.g. apple juice; depectinised juices can also be concentrated without gelling and developing turbidity. Enzyme treatment of pulp: of soft fruit, red grapes, citrus and apples, for better release of juice (and coloured material); enzyme treatment of pulp of olives, palm fruit and coconut flesh to increase oil yield. Maceration of fruit and vegetables (disintegration by cell separation): to obtain nectar bases and baby foods. ...read more.


An example is lactase, this is very expensive and is immobilised on an inert material (e.g. porous beads). The substrate is passed over the enzyme, which is placed in a column. This method is used to make whey syrup, which is used in confectionery. Enzymes are widely used for analytical reasons. Many biological fluids such as blood are complex mixtures, and analysis of substances such as glucose requires specific, accurate and sensitive techniques. Enzymes are the basis for many tests for biochemical compounds. One of these is ELISA, which detects tiny amounts of proteins in biological fluids. ELISA is widely used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, where it can detect antigens and antibodies. It can also be used to detect hormone levels and in food quality control. Glucose levels in the blood can be detected glucose oxidase, which is used as a basis for a biosensor. The enzyme catalyses the reaction between glucose and oxygen to give gluconic acid. An oxygen electrode gives a measure of the oxygen consumption and therefore the glucose level in the blood, because the higher this is the more oxygen is consumed. Applications of biosensors include clinic testing and detention of toxins in food and water. Many diagnostic test strips that include enzymes have been developed for clinical tests. For instance, glucose in urine can be measured with test strips with glucose oxidase and peroxides immobilised on a cellulose pad. This pad changes colour and can be read off on a colour chart. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    Due to this mixture, a ratio is created of enzyme-water molecules. In a pure sample of enzyme, no water is present, and therefore only enzyme molecules are present. If water is added, however, there will be a certain number of water molecules for every enzyme molecule.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    I found the standard deviation to be 0.177 which I feel is reasonable and with the help of a statistical table (found in appendix) the test proved that my two sets of results were consistent with each other. My experimental evidence can be seen to prove my prediction correct apart

  1. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    Some lumps of apple were present. This might affect the enzyme action during the reaction. The surface area on which the enzyme acted would not be the same. Therefore the volume of the apple juice produced We could not transfer all the apple sauce to filter funnels because some of it was left in the beaker

  2. All flesh is grass.

    Assimilation: - this is the way in which the body incorporates and utilises digested food. Digested food molecules are carried around the body through the circulatory system: they may be stored for future use, such as fat and the formation of glycogen stores; they may be broken down further

  1. Investigate the effect of fruit variety on the extraction of fruit juice.

    specific indentation, called the active site, into which a particular substrate can fit. Once the enzyme and the substrate are joined they form an enzyme-substrate complex. The formation of an enzyme-substrate complex makes it possible for substrate molecules to be brought together to form a product.


    A tea strainer will also be needed to strain the beads out. I feel a strainer needs to be used rather than just tipping the water out as it ensures that all the other calcium chloride is removed. Also it is safer as the beads do not come into contact with the hand.

  1. Follicular development

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates follicle-stimulating hormone- beta gene expression through an activin/follistatin autocrine or paracrine loop. Endocrinology. 137: 3667-3673 Burns KH, Yan C, Kumar TR, Matzuk MM. 2001. Analysis of ovarian gene expression in follicle-stimulating hormone _ knockout mice. Endocrinology 142:2742-2751 Chemyong KO, Grieshaber NA, Inhae JI, and Tae HJI. 2003.

  2. The Origin of the Mitochondrion.

    This must have evolved when sexual reproduction using cells such as gametes became prevalent in eukaryotes. Both of these mechanisms must have been important throughout the evolution of the mitochondria in cells, since host nuclei lack the genetic potential for forming new mitochondria (Lang et al.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work