• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Does Pectinase Act On The Apple To Produce More Juice?

Extracts from this document...


Biology Coursework Does Pectinase Act On The Apple To Produce More Juice? Background Knowledge An enzyme is a protein molecule that speeds up chemical reactions. Each enzyme has a unique shape that determines its function. One enzyme works on one type of substrate. Enzymes break down large molecules into smaller more manageable molecules, and they can be used more than once. Enzymes work best at their optimum temperature, which is around 40?. When an enzyme is in a hot temperature or a high pH the enzyme denatures, which means it effectively dies. Prediction/Hypothesis There will be more juice produced from the apple when pectinase is added than when just water is added. Reasons for making my prediction The pectinase will act on the pectin in the apple and break it down into small molecules. Controlling Variables * Temperature * Volume of substances used Why do I need to control these? ...read more.


I will also wear a lab coat to protect my skin and clothes from any chemicals. I will move any obstructing and unnecessary objects to prevent any accidents, like tripping over a bag. Method I first place a piece of apple on a white tile. Then I cut it into small chunks. Next I put these chunks into a blender, which will produce a soluble mash. I then add 5 grams of the mashed up apple into a test tube. Then the one test tube I add 2cm� of pectinase. Then into a second test tube I add 5 grams of the mashed up apple and with it I put 2cm� of water. I next place the test tubes into a hot water bath for ten minutes. After ten minutes I remove the test tubes from the hot water bath and empty the contents into two separate measuring cylinders with funnels and filter paper on top. ...read more.


This prediction was correct because pectinase is an enzyme used to make fruit juices. The pectinase acts on the pectin in the apple, which holds the cell walls of the fruit together, and they begin to deteriorate which produces the juice. Evaluation Problems with equipment: I was unable to use a proper hot water bath so instead I had to use a beaker and keep refilling the beaker with hot water so it was a steady 40?. This meant that it wasn't constantly at the correct temperature. Possible Inaccuracies: The fact that I didn't have access to a hot water bath meant that the temperature of the water would have been inaccurate at times. Anomalous Results: I did not have any anomalous results. Improvements: I could do the experiment again and collect more results. I could record the amount of juice every minute rather than every 10 minutes. This way I could have a more accurate understanding of the result of my experiment. If I did the experiment again I could use a hot water bath, that way my results would be a lot more accurate. Natasha Rayden ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    4 star(s)

    of the experiment, this suggests that the rate of reaction was increasing rapidly. The rate of reaction at each minute was calculated and all the results are recorded in the results section of the write up. From the calculations, an overall trend was observed that the rate of reaction had

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    I predict my graph of results to look quite similar to the one shown below: (GRAPH FROM REFERENCE 7 ) THE EXPERIMENT The independent variable in this experiment will be temperature. This will be what I controlled during the experiment.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    * Make 15% (37.5cm3 of tomato juice and fill up to 250cm3 with distilled water) and add 10cm3 to each of the 25 cupcakes in tray 4. * Make 20% (50cm3 of tomato juice and fill up to 250cm3 with distilled water)

  2. Investigate the effect of fruit variety on the extraction of fruit juice.

    Apparatus list: * Whole apples (x7 of different makes) * Knife - for cutting apples * Pectinase enzyme * Distilled water * Glass stirring rods (x7) - to stir apples when in bath * Syringes - to extract enzyme and water * Coffee filter papers (x7) - to filter pulp for juice * Filter funnels (x7)

  1. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    Risk assessment Hazardous apparatus, chemical or procedure Type of hazard Control measures to reduce the risk Pectinase solution Biological hazard; irritant; produces allergic reaction Not swallow the enzyme solution; not let the enzyme solution come into contact with the skin; if does, wash off with water Buffer solution (pH 5.5)

  2. The aim of the investigation is to find out what effect temperature has on ...

    * Put this 2cm3 of enzyme solution into a beaker and 2cm3 of water into another beaker (this will be used as a control). * Chop the apple. * Take the apple and tile to the balance and put the tile down first press the 'tare' button on the balance and make sure it is displaying 0.00g.

  1. The planned experiment is to measure the effect on the production of apple juice ...

    temperature To control the dependant and independent variables I will be careful when measuring the volume of enzyme and water by using a 5ml pipette and make sure that my timing is exactly at 30 seconds when I take the reading and will record it straight away.

  2. An Investigation into the effects of Concentration upon pectinase and the yield of apple ...

    Pectin degrading enzymes are particularly important in the production of fruit juice concentrates as pectin's can form very viscous gels, which hinder filtration and concentration to high levels of dissolved solids. It is important for industry's to find the most appropriate temperature and concentrations of the enzyme which can be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work