• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Does Pectinase Act On The Apple To Produce More Juice?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biology Coursework Does Pectinase Act On The Apple To Produce More Juice? Background Knowledge An enzyme is a protein molecule that speeds up chemical reactions. Each enzyme has a unique shape that determines its function. One enzyme works on one type of substrate. Enzymes break down large molecules into smaller more manageable molecules, and they can be used more than once. Enzymes work best at their optimum temperature, which is around 40?. When an enzyme is in a hot temperature or a high pH the enzyme denatures, which means it effectively dies. Prediction/Hypothesis There will be more juice produced from the apple when pectinase is added than when just water is added. Reasons for making my prediction The pectinase will act on the pectin in the apple and break it down into small molecules. Controlling Variables * Temperature * Volume of substances used Why do I need to control these? ...read more.

Middle

I will also wear a lab coat to protect my skin and clothes from any chemicals. I will move any obstructing and unnecessary objects to prevent any accidents, like tripping over a bag. Method I first place a piece of apple on a white tile. Then I cut it into small chunks. Next I put these chunks into a blender, which will produce a soluble mash. I then add 5 grams of the mashed up apple into a test tube. Then the one test tube I add 2cm� of pectinase. Then into a second test tube I add 5 grams of the mashed up apple and with it I put 2cm� of water. I next place the test tubes into a hot water bath for ten minutes. After ten minutes I remove the test tubes from the hot water bath and empty the contents into two separate measuring cylinders with funnels and filter paper on top. ...read more.

Conclusion

This prediction was correct because pectinase is an enzyme used to make fruit juices. The pectinase acts on the pectin in the apple, which holds the cell walls of the fruit together, and they begin to deteriorate which produces the juice. Evaluation Problems with equipment: I was unable to use a proper hot water bath so instead I had to use a beaker and keep refilling the beaker with hot water so it was a steady 40?. This meant that it wasn't constantly at the correct temperature. Possible Inaccuracies: The fact that I didn't have access to a hot water bath meant that the temperature of the water would have been inaccurate at times. Anomalous Results: I did not have any anomalous results. Improvements: I could do the experiment again and collect more results. I could record the amount of juice every minute rather than every 10 minutes. This way I could have a more accurate understanding of the result of my experiment. If I did the experiment again I could use a hot water bath, that way my results would be a lot more accurate. Natasha Rayden ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    4 star(s)

    From an increase of 0.75 cm3 at the first two minutes. The volume has only increased 0.25 cm3 starting from the 6th minute. This indicates that there is limited substrate hence it takes longer for the enzyme to look for a 'free' substrate.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    FRUIT-PLUMS- I chose this fruit because of its high pectin and juice content. Measuring cylinders, 50 cm3 1cm3 syringes (for measuring out the enzyme) Filter funnels and filter paper 100cm3 beakers Cling film Thermometer- for assurance that the water bath is at the required temperature Stock clock (digital)

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    Total the results and work out the mean. ii. I will then work out the deviation for each result (mean minus the number which is the result) iii. I will then square the deviation number for each result iv. Add up the squared values and work out the mean of the squared values (i.e.

  2. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    All the apple sauce is broken down into soluble sugars and glutaronic acid at this point and thus no more products are formed beyond this point. * The reaction might reach the equilibrium. This occurs when the rate of forward reaction (formation of soluble sugars and glutaronic acid)

  1. An investigation into the effect of varying pH on the yield of apple juice ...

    The filter funnel is placed on the white tile following the twelve-minute filtration period to prevent any solution leaking onto the work surface. * 2x 500ml beaker holds the cut apple pieces until they are required therefore maintaining a tidy work surface through avoiding, leaving the apple dispersed on the workbench.

  2. The planned experiment is to measure the effect on the production of apple juice ...

    The information from the website was more useful because I knew roughly what I was looking for as the information pack had too much information I wasn't quite sure which bit to look at or summarise. Variables Variables are important because they may or may not affect the results of

  1. Investigate the effect of fruit variety on the extraction of fruit juice.

    specific indentation, called the active site, into which a particular substrate can fit. Once the enzyme and the substrate are joined they form an enzyme-substrate complex. The formation of an enzyme-substrate complex makes it possible for substrate molecules to be brought together to form a product.

  2. An Investigation into the effects of Concentration upon pectinase and the yield of apple ...

    Nearly all fruit and berries contain pectin's and other polysaccharides such as Starch. The addition of Pectin degrading enzymes (pectin methyl esterase, polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) at the pulping stage increases the yield of juice and also helps in the clarification.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work