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Drug administration The route of administration can be described as the path by which a substance is bought into contact with the body. There have been many advances in the formulations of drugs and the routes in which they are administered.

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Drug administration The route of administration can be described as the path by which a substance is bought into contact with the body. There have been many advances in the formulations of drugs and the routes in which they are administered. Knowledge of the body's transport mechanisms for this purpose and the way that drugs transport across tissues has also increased [1], Successful drug delivery systems are ones that increase safety and improve the overall performance of the drug, the pharmacokinetic properties of a drug critically influence the route of administration of drugs. New systems are constantly being researched and developed to help make simple the administration of the drug and therefore increasing patient compliance. Also the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situation exists which can be a benefit to certain patient groups such as children. The development of different methods of drug administration has allowed physicians to deal with specific problems and to recognise the rapid onset, reliability and lack of patient discomfort when drugs are administered via routes such as transmucosally and transdermally [1]. When new methods or routes of drug administration are introduced, it is vital that the practitioner understand the pharmacologic actions of the administered drug and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications that may be unique for patients [1]. ...read more.


Transmucosal Routes The respiratory tract, which includes the nasal mucosa, hypopharynx, and large and small airway structures, provides a large mucosal surface for drug absorption. Mucosal surfaces are the most common and convenient routes for delivering drugs to the body [5]. This route of administration is useful for treatment of pulmonary conditions and for delivery of drugs to distant target organs via the circulatory system [1]. The way in which drug absorption is improved via the mucosal surface is due to the absence of the stratum corneum ebidermis. The mucosal surfaces offer another advantage in the way that they provide a rich blood supply resulting in rapid drug transport to the systemic circulation, which allow an avoidance of first-pass hepatic metablism. The amount of drug absorbed depends on the following factors [1] * Drug concentration * Vehicle of drug delivery * Mucosal contact time * Venous drainage of the mucosal tissues * Degree of the drug's ionization and the pH of the absorption site * Size of the drug molecule * Relative lipid solubility Drugs that are delivered intranasally are used for a local effect and provide safety, efficacy and greater bioavailibility [9]. ...read more.


For a number of drugs the extent of rectal absorption has been reported to exceed oral values, which may reflect partial avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism after rectal delivery [11]. The most important concern for the practitioner is irregular uptake; clinically important patient-to-patient variability exist [12]. The absorption of the drug may be delayed or prolonged, or uptake may be almost as rapid as if an intravenous bolus were administered, which may cause adverse cardiovascular or central nervous system effects [1]. The rate of delivery may determine systemic drug action and side effects (nifedipine), and it may affect the local action of concurrently administered absorption promoters on drug uptake (cefoxitin) [11]. Prolonged use is not recommended because it is uncomfortable and the expulsion of the suppository by bowel movement will affect drug absorption [12]. Recent studies corroborate the clinical relevance of rectal drug therapy, and the value of the rectal route as an alternative to parenteral administration has been assessed for several drugs, e.g. diazepam, midazolam, morphine and diclofenac [11]. Current research has been conducted into the effects of rectal and vaginal administration of insulin gel formations on the blood glucose levels as alternative routes of administration[12]. ...read more.

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