• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Drug administration The route of administration can be described as the path by which a substance is bought into contact with the body. There have been many advances in the formulations of drugs and the routes in which they are administered.

Extracts from this document...


Drug administration The route of administration can be described as the path by which a substance is bought into contact with the body. There have been many advances in the formulations of drugs and the routes in which they are administered. Knowledge of the body's transport mechanisms for this purpose and the way that drugs transport across tissues has also increased [1], Successful drug delivery systems are ones that increase safety and improve the overall performance of the drug, the pharmacokinetic properties of a drug critically influence the route of administration of drugs. New systems are constantly being researched and developed to help make simple the administration of the drug and therefore increasing patient compliance. Also the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situation exists which can be a benefit to certain patient groups such as children. The development of different methods of drug administration has allowed physicians to deal with specific problems and to recognise the rapid onset, reliability and lack of patient discomfort when drugs are administered via routes such as transmucosally and transdermally [1]. When new methods or routes of drug administration are introduced, it is vital that the practitioner understand the pharmacologic actions of the administered drug and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications that may be unique for patients [1]. ...read more.


Transmucosal Routes The respiratory tract, which includes the nasal mucosa, hypopharynx, and large and small airway structures, provides a large mucosal surface for drug absorption. Mucosal surfaces are the most common and convenient routes for delivering drugs to the body [5]. This route of administration is useful for treatment of pulmonary conditions and for delivery of drugs to distant target organs via the circulatory system [1]. The way in which drug absorption is improved via the mucosal surface is due to the absence of the stratum corneum ebidermis. The mucosal surfaces offer another advantage in the way that they provide a rich blood supply resulting in rapid drug transport to the systemic circulation, which allow an avoidance of first-pass hepatic metablism. The amount of drug absorbed depends on the following factors [1] * Drug concentration * Vehicle of drug delivery * Mucosal contact time * Venous drainage of the mucosal tissues * Degree of the drug's ionization and the pH of the absorption site * Size of the drug molecule * Relative lipid solubility Drugs that are delivered intranasally are used for a local effect and provide safety, efficacy and greater bioavailibility [9]. ...read more.


For a number of drugs the extent of rectal absorption has been reported to exceed oral values, which may reflect partial avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism after rectal delivery [11]. The most important concern for the practitioner is irregular uptake; clinically important patient-to-patient variability exist [12]. The absorption of the drug may be delayed or prolonged, or uptake may be almost as rapid as if an intravenous bolus were administered, which may cause adverse cardiovascular or central nervous system effects [1]. The rate of delivery may determine systemic drug action and side effects (nifedipine), and it may affect the local action of concurrently administered absorption promoters on drug uptake (cefoxitin) [11]. Prolonged use is not recommended because it is uncomfortable and the expulsion of the suppository by bowel movement will affect drug absorption [12]. Recent studies corroborate the clinical relevance of rectal drug therapy, and the value of the rectal route as an alternative to parenteral administration has been assessed for several drugs, e.g. diazepam, midazolam, morphine and diclofenac [11]. Current research has been conducted into the effects of rectal and vaginal administration of insulin gel formations on the blood glucose levels as alternative routes of administration[12]. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Progesterone is a female sex hormone that regulates menstrual cycle and ovulation. During ovulation the temperature of the body in females rises by 0.5�C. LH stimulates the graafian follicle to secret corpus luteum, which is an empty graafian follicle after ovulation transformed into a yellow body filled with cells containing yellow substance that in turn secretes progesterone.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

    5 star(s)

    The heat from the incubation also helps to speed up the rate of growth so leaving them incubated for 48 hours is an accurate period. * The disc size- each disc needs to be the same size and placed in the centre of each plate.

  1. The Endocrine System

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas; this prevents the body producing the hormone insulin, which therefore means the sugars of the body cannot be used properly. There are two types of Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 occurs when the pancreas can't produce enough insulin.

  2. Urinary system

    Only a very small amount of the filtrate, about 1-2 litres per day, is filtered from the body each circuit (Solomon, E. et al. 1992). Tubular secretion This is a chemical process that takes place in the convoluted tubules. The cells lining the tubules select abnormal substances from the blood,

  1. Blood System Assignemnt

    The structure of veins is similar to that of arteries, again consisting of three layers: 1. Tunica Adventitia: This is the strong outer covering of arteries and veins which consists of connective tissues, collagen and elastic fibres. 2. Tunica Media: This is the middle layer and consists of smooth muscle and elastic fibres.

  2. Photosynthesis - Absorption spectrum.

    Effect of temperature on Enzymes Boiling the liver denatured the catalyst. This means that the catalyse does not work. This happens because the linkages in its molecules break down this is due to the high temperature. As the temperature goes up, so does the rate of reaction for the enzyme,

  1. Investigation into the effects of different

    and a polysaccharide (starch). Glucose; Maltose; Starch; Alternative hypothesis; Starch will have the least effect on the yeast growth. (Lowest number of yeast cells) Glucose will have the largest effect on yeast growth. (Highest number of yeast cells) Maltose will have a slight effect on yeast growth.

  2. Reflective Practitioner

    However in 20-21 century in secular societies women have managed to voice and demand via feminist movements equality by resembling an influential working force in society. This new attitude has considerably decreased the dimension of domination of men in sport.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work