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Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different brands using back titration

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Introduction

Project Title Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different brands using back titration Objectives 1. To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different brands. 2. To compare the effectiveness of commercial antacids and their side effects. Reasons for Choice of Topic In nowadays, many HK people are suffering from upset stomach due to heavy workload, nervous tension due to the stress of daily life and poor eating habit, which is eating too much high-fat foods too quickly. They usually use antacid therapy to relieve the symptoms. From our previous knowledge, we know that antacids contain weak bases to neutralize the excess antacid in the stomach. Every day we are bombarded by commercials dealing with acid indigestion. Each in turn declares they neutralize more acid and provide strongest relief and are fastest acting. Hence, we are interested in which brand of antacid is the most effective medicine and its side effects. Introduction Stomach contents are highly acidic due to the action of cells in the stomach walls that secrete hydrochloric acid. The acid environment suppresses growth of bacteria and aids in the digestion process. The acid hydrolyzes proteins and helps to activate the enzyme pepsin, which further breaks down food proteins. The primary component of gastric juice is hydrochloric acid and the pH is very close to 1. This is the pH of a 0.1 M HCl solution. Under normal conditions, the inner lining of the stomach is not damaged by the hydrochloric acid because this lining, the mucosa, is being replaced at a very rapid rate. The stomach often responds to overeating or under stress with a greatly increased secretion of acid. This excess acid can lower the pH, which is normally in the range from 0.9 to 1.5, to the point where discomfort (acid indigestion) is experienced. Upset stomach, indigestion, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may occur when the excess acid travels to more delicate tissues, causing a burning, painful sensation which is so-called heartburn. ...read more.

Middle

7. It should be made sure that there were no air bubbles in the burette tips. 8. Burette readings should be recorded to the nearest 0.05 cm3. 9. Sodium hydroxide should be removed from the burette as soon as possible after the titration. It was because NaOH is corrosive and it reacted with carbon dioxide in the air to form sodium carbonate which was a white solid and clogged the tip of the burette easily. Clean Up: 1. Upon completion of the experiment, all chemicals can be safely disposed of in the sinks. 2. Glassware should be washed. 3. The burettes should be inverted and mounted in the burette clamp with the stopcock open allowing them to drain. Observation Upon heating, the powders dissolved quickly and easily with a small amount of stirring. The solution's color would change to reflect the color of the tablet inserted. The Weisen U Brand tablets had the greatest difficulty dissolving, doing so at a slow pace. --> --> -->-->--> Calculations: Brand name of antacid used: ACTAL Active ingredient: aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 (s) Mass of a tablet: 0.69g Mass of antacid used: 0.61 g Volume of HCl added: 25ml Molarity of HCl: 0.1M No. of moles of HCl added to antacid: 0.0025 mol Results Table: Burette solution NaOH Indicator Phenolphthalein Trial 1 2 3 Burette readings Initial 0 0 14 Final 19.5 19.5 33 Volume used (titre)/ cm3 19.5 19.5 19 Mean titre / cm3 19.3 No. of moles of NaOH required to neutralize excess HCl: No. of moles of NaOH = Molarity � volume = 0.1 � (19.3 / 1000 ) = 0.00193 mol HCl(aq +NaOH(aq --> NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) No. of moles of HCl neutralized by NaOH : 0.00193 mol No. of moles of HCl neutralized by the 25ml antacid solution: 0.0025 - 0.00193 = 0.00057 mol No. of moles of HCl neutralized by the 250ml antacid solution: 0.00057 � 10 = 0.0057 mol No. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, patients, particularly, the elderly should also take antacid therapy to relieve GI upset and to strengthen the gastric mucosa. In general, stomachache, nausea, etc, gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are simply temporary side effects of drugs and will not pose any risk of gastrointestinal ulcer or stomach bleeding. Hence, there is no need to take antacids in these cases. Take antibiotic as an example, the symptoms of gastrointestinal upset will probably disappear after seven-day medication. Some medicines, like Digoxin which treat cardiovascular diseases, pills which enrich blood and tetracycline which treats inflammation caused by bacteria, the decomposition or absorption will be affected and the effectiveness of drugs will be greatly reduced if antacids are taken at the same time. Hence, patients should not feel panic when stomach upset appears and take antacids recklessly. On the other hand, this may also cover up the truth which causes stomachache since this is a non-specific symptom of many different kinds of diseases. For example, patients with gastric ulcer take antacid therapy for temporary relieve of symptoms, like abdominal pain, nausea, and lots of vomiting. When medication cease, symptoms may relapse and in serious cases, bleeding or anemia may occur and this may pose the risk of death due to delay of treatment. To conclude, if one finds that stomach upset continues after one-week antacid therapy, one should seek doctor's advice. 14. Apart from taking antacid, what else should be aware of? It is very important to have a healthy diet to get the most benefit from this medication and to prevent serious side effects. Avoid eating fatty food or spicy food, alcohol. Conclusion: Antacids are common and effective tablets in treating the excess acids in the stomach. From our investigation, the most effective antacid brand is ACTAL and the least effective one was the unknown brand. Thus we recommend the ACTAL tablets in treating the stomach problem. Reference: http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quick/csustan/antacid.htm http://icn2.umeche.maine.edu/genchemlabs/Antacid/antacid2.htm http://www.chem.latech.edu/~deddy/chem104/104Antacid.htm http://www.nku.edu/~cinsam/intsci/sci110/worksheets/antacid_tablets.html http://cnx.org/content/m15804/latest/ ?? ?? ?? ?? Antacid Effectiveness Analysis 7C Candy Kwok (12) Maggie Lam (13) Cecilia Wu (23) ...read more.

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