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effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down starch.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Biology Coursework Abstract In this investigation I am going to explore the effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down starch. Copper sulphate is a very common chemical that can be used in a lot of different areas, but little has been discussed on its effect on amylase. I will find out which type of inhibitor copper ion is and how does it actually inhibits amylase, and also how concentration of copper sulpahte will affect the rate at which amylase works. Aim of investigation The aim of this investigation is to find out how concentration of copper sulphate affects the action of amylase. Hypothesis The higher the concentration of copper sulphate, the slower the amylase works. Rationale There are two ways that we could have consumed copper sulphate. Water pipes are responsible for transporting water, and some of them are made out of copper. Copper pipes can become rusted if there is high sulphate content in the water, basic copper sulphate is precipitated which can grow through the pipe wall creating pit holes [1]. Copper sulphate is also used in some places to treat sewer lines, tree roots are constantly looking for water and organic sources and sewer lines are the perfect site for them. Tree roots will penetrate and damage the pipes which will is expensive to repair. Copper sulfate kills tree roots without killing the tree or other plants [2], therefore copper sulphate is poured into these pipes to kill the tree roots. This way there is a small chance that copper sulphate will leak into the pipes that are used for drinking. Copper sulphate can do a lot of harm to the human body, but very little has been discussed on the effect of copper sulphate on amylase, which is an enzyme that is present in human saliva and in the small intestines, therefore I want to perform an experiment to find out how the concentration of copper sulphate will affect the action of amylase.

Middle

Test tube rack- Test tubes cannot stand by themselves; therefore I need a test tube rack to hold all the test tubes. 50 ml of copper sulphate of concentrations 0.1%, 0.2% 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% - This is my independent variable. 200ml of 5% starch solution- Starch solution is needed for the amylase to break it down. It produces the distinct blue-black colour when mix with iodine solution. 5% is used because it is easy for the starch to fully dissolve into the water. 100ml of 5% amylase solution- Amylase is needed to break down the starch into glucose and maltose. 5% is used because it is easy to make and dissolve into the water. 50ml of iodine solution- Iodine solution is mixed with the starch solution to produce the blue-black colour, which enables me to monitor the reaction progress by measuring the light absorbance using a colorimeter. 50ml of buffer solution of pH 7- The pH could change during the reaction and this will affect the efficiency of amylase, therefore a buffer solution is needed to control the pH. pH 7 is used because it is the optimum pH of amylase. Preliminary method 1. Using different pipettes measure out 4ml of amylase, 4ml of starch, and 1ml of 0.1% of copper sulphate solution. 2. Add the starch, buffer solution and copper sulphate solution into a test tube. 3. Add 2ml of iodine solution into the test tube, mix well by swirling, solution should turn blue black. 4. Add the amylase into the test tube and start the clock immediately. 5. Mix the solution thoroughly by swirling the solution with a glass rod. 6. Stop the clock when a dark-purple colour forms. 7. Repeat the concentration 2 times to get three sets of results. 8. Repeat steps 1-9 for other concentrations of copper sulphate solution. Results obtained from preliminary experiment Test Concentration of copper sulphate/% Volume of copper sulphate/ml Volume of amylase/ml Volume of starch/ml Iodine/ml Time taken to turn blue-black/s Too quick or too slow?

Conclusion

key theory, page 117 [73] Chapter 4.1.2, Techniques to prove the 'induced fit' hypothesis, page 118 [74] Chapter 4.1.2, Theory of 'Induced fit' hypothesis, page 118 [75] Chapter 4.4.1 Competitive inhibition, page 123 [76] Chapter 4.4.2 Non-competitive reversible inhibition, page 124 [77] Chapter 4.4.3 Non-competitive irreversible inhabitation, page 124-125 [8] http://www.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/genomes/date/1aqm.gif The tertiary structure of an amylase molecule [9] http://www.yellowtang.org/images/how_enzymes_work_c_la_784.jpg A diagram showing how enzyme works [10] http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/biochemistry/images/induced.jpg A diagram to show the induced fit theory Last update at 2008 [11] http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255enz/competitive_inhibition.jpg A diagram showing competitive inhibition [12] http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/573inhibit.html Information on the different type of inhibitions Published by Elmhurst College, Charles E Ophardt. Last updated at 2003 [13] http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/aminoacids/enzymes3.html Information on how copper sulphate inhibits amylase Last update October 2009 Published by Jim Clark 2007 [14] http://www.finishing.com/74/03-2.shtml Last update 2010 [15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_test Information on the iodine- test for starch Last updated at 2009 [16] The Effect of Temperature, pH, and Salt on Amylase in Heliodiaptomus viduus (Gurney) (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida) TAPAN KR. DUTTA, MALABENDU JANA, PIRITI R. PAHARI, TANMAY BHATTACHARYA Turk. Journal. Zoology., Volume 30, (2006), 187-195. [17] http://www.copper.org/applications/compounds/table_a.html Application of copper sulphate Copper Development Application Inc. Last updated at 2010 [18] http://course1.winona.edu/sberg/ChemStructures/Cysteine.gif A diagram of cysteine [19] Cleapss 2000 Safety data of chemicals [20] http://www.enzymeessentials.com/HTML/amylase.html Last updated in 2008 The function of amylase [21] http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/basicrates/introduction.html Information for the collision theory Last updated in 2002 Credibility of references I will rank the references in three levels; level 1 being the most credible and useful , and level 3 being the least credible and useful. Level 1 Source 1: This is a website produced by the Royal Institute of Technology, which is a University responsible for one-third of Sweden capacity for engineering studies and technical research at post-secondary level. The information therefore will be very credible and professional. The information is very useful as it explains clearly how copper sulphate can exist in the drinking system. Source 3: This is a website produced by four different universities in the US so it is very credible.

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4 star(s)

****A very well researched and presented report in which the key elements of A level coursework are addressed well. The report could be improved by considering the evaluation of the experimental methodology in more detail and by repeating the the experiment for the anomalous concentration.
Research and Rationale
The rationale for the investigation is clearly justified in terms of its scope and appropriate biological principles are discussed. Numerous additional sources ( beyond normal A level texts) were selected and used effectively to provide a context for the investigation.
Planning
There is clear evidence of thought and ingenuity in the design of the experiment. There was good attention to detail in the way the variables were controlled or taken into account. There was a suitable pilot experiment and the experimental method was suitably modified.
Observing and Recording
The observations and measurements were carried out over a suitable range of values and sufficient observations were made to allow a conclusion. The numerical results were recorded clearly and to an appropriate degree of precision. Measurements and observations were repeated but the anomalous result, although noted, was not further investigated.

Interpreting and Evaluation
Data is processed using appropriate methods that revealed the trend and pattern in the investigation. The chosen statistical tests are clearly set out and interpreted. Results were interpreted using biological principles and concepts of A level standard.
The limitations of the procedure were commented on but there were few sensible modifications suggested.
Communicating
The layout of the report conforms to that expected of a scientific paper with helpful headings and subheadings. Images illustrate the points effectively. Data is mostly presented effectively in graphs tables and diagrams. There are minor spelling errors and grammatical errors but appropriate technical terms are used throughout.
Sources are evaluated with reference to their credibility within the wider scientific community.


Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 01/01/1970

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