• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

EFFECT OF LEAD IONS ON BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL AMYLASE Amylases are enzymes, which hydrolyse starch into Maltose. There are two types of amylase: Alpha amylase that degrades starch, which is a polysaccharide, into fragments 10 glucose residues long. Beta Amylase breaks these down into maltose, which is a disaccharide of two glucose molecules joined together. Both enzymes work by hydrolysis of the glycosidic link in carbohydrates. Enzyme amylase are produced from different sources but in my experiment I will be concerned with Bacterial and fungal amylase. Heavy metal ions cause inhibition of enzyme. Inhibition of an enzyme means either to slow down the rate of reaction, to increase the rate of reaction or both. Inhibitors can slow the rate of reaction in various ways. One way is that it competes with the normal substrate for binding of active sites. . Once it is attached to an enzyme molecule it prevents the normal substrate from doing so. This is known as a competitive inhibition. A quite different inhibition would be is when an inhibitor such as lead ions can attach itself permanently to the active site of the enzyme thereby excluding any possibility of normal substrate taking up its rightful space. So in this case the inhibitors are not competing with each other so this is known as non-competitive inhibition. Inhibition is not confined to be not only confined to substances, which combine with the active sites of enzyme. Some inhibitors combine with the other parts of an enzyme molecule altering the shape in such a way that substances no longer fit with the active sites. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus required Incubated flask - Doing this experiment in normal test tubes will create temperature problems. In order to measure the rate of enzyme effectively use incubated flask in which temperature of enzyme will be controlled in all experiments. Buffers- In this experiment I will need a Citrate buffer. This is a mixture of citric acid and disodium phosphate in appropriate proportions to give the required PH. These two chemicals are able to absorb either added acid or added base by reacting and effectively neutralizing the environment. Buffers around PH 6.5 will be needed. Dropper bottle of starch solution- we will place five droppers full of starch every experiment we do and all of these size of drops have to be equal. Dropper bottle of lead chloride- this experiment is concerned with increased concentrations of lead ions so firstly I will begin by adding one drop of solution to both bacterial and fungal amylase Pipette- this will be used to draw out the exact volume and starch of into incubated flasks. They are very accurate for measuring right volume of liquid to have fair rate of reaction. Dropper Bottle of glucose solution- this would enable to see whether Glucose is being produced in the experiment. Stop clock - I need to know what time I have added Enzymes into each test tubes. There is only a limited amount of time available for this experiment. As soon as enzyme is put into the test tubes I will start the stop clock and then after a certain amount of time I will measure the concentration of glucose formed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Record your results. Does starch contain any detectable sugar? Depression D is the standard for glucose. 3. I will then Place about 0.5 ml of saliva in G, and then add 2 droppers full of starch solution. Let set for 10 - 15 minutes. Now add 1 dropper full of GLUCOSE TEST SOLUTION to G. I would then Record my results. What has the Amylase done to the starch solution? I will then record the results. 4. Place 0.5 ml of saliva into depression F, add 4 drops of GLUCOSE TEST SOLUTION and note the colour change. Would the solution contain any glucose? Risk assessments and hazards Handling of both enzymes must be extreme care if there are to work properly in an experiment. There will be some toxic materials used in this experiment. Inhalation can cause breathing problems and cause damage to the body. If enzymes are in powdered form then it can cause eye problem. Wear goggles to give protection to your eyes. About harmful liquid solutions getting into your eyes, which can be very irritant so rinse your eyes immediately. Some solutions could also spill in your skin. If this happens rinse your skin immediately. You can reduce the risk by wearing disposable gloves. It is important to maintain cleanliness because minor impurities may ruin a good bio-chemical experiment. It is also very important to label different containers so we do not get the solutions mixed up. This involves less risk as it does not involve anything being heated up so less chance of skin burn. Ethical implications It would not be ethical to use a source of enzymes from animal cell sources. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay


**Plan only. This plan is lacking in a number of key aspects that would allow it to gain a good grade at A level. The written method cannot be followed and the methodology used to measure the rate of reaction is very unclear.
To improve
Research and Rationale
There is background research but the information discussed is a limited and is very confused in parts. Additional carefully selected references would help inform the project.
Planning The project could be improved by listing all the key variables in a table and then discussing their control methods and likely effect on the experiment if they are not controlled well. The choice of apparatus needs to be justified and the design of the experiment explained. The written method is lacking in key details such as volumes and concentrations. The methodology itself is questionable but if the steps were written in a clear, concise and logical way then it would be much easier for the reader to follow.
A risk assessment should be included.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 26/07/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    Variable There are 3 variables that must be controlled in this experiment to keep the test fair. The first variable is temperature. If temperature in an enzyme-controlled reaction increases then so does the kinetic energy of the enzyme. This causes the enzyme to move more quickly and increases its chance of colliding with other substrate molecules.

  2. The Effect Of Temperature On The Action Of Salivary Amylase

    In four-marked test tubes (from 1-4) add up 2 ml of salvia and 10 ml of starch solution using the measuring cylinder, mix well. Then place the four test tubes in clamps, and wait for five minutes. 3) During the waiting time, set up the water paths one at 370C and the other at 800C.

  1. Effects of Copper Sulphate on the Activity of Catalase

    This is why I would have preferred to use the gas syringe apparatus because it is much easier to reset. From the results, I can only identify a set of anomalous results and an anomalous value. The value, which was mentioned earlier, could have been due to my fault in reading it off accurately.

  2. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    It was also noticed that while making the apple pulp, juice was being produced and that this needed to be drained away before adding the pectinase solution. This is because the experiment is designed to find out how much juice is produced from the apple pulp itself.

  1. Qualitative tests for carbohydrates

    There was no visual change under the Seliwanoff's test or the iodone test. As a reducing sugar and a pentose (Bial's test)not a hexose these results would be expected. (iv) Sucrose - gave a positive purple result under the Molisch test, and a deep reddish brown under the Seliwanoff's test.

  2. Type - 1 Hypersensitivity Reaction

    Consequently when the histamine is released and binds onto the H1 receptors, this blockade immediately results in a bi-phasic response of vasoconstriction, which is instantly followed by peripheral vessel dilation, resulting in a contractile response of the smooth muscle in the guinea pig ileum.

  1. Investigating The Activity Of The Enzyme Lipase On Milk

    would be necessary which consumed a lot more time which may have been used more constructively to carry out more averages. I think that any anomalous results where mostly due to a longer acclimatization or the fact that I did not allow the lipase to acclimatize for exactly the same

  2. Investigating how different concentrations of a antibiotic effects the growth of a bacterium.

    An important point to consider on the results is that produced on the Control plate. The details of this there were no bacteria grown after leaving these for three days, therefore the sterilisation technique had been correct and so that results gathered can be deemed reliable.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work