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Electromagnet Investigation

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

What is a electromagnet Planning An electromagnet consists of an iron core with a wire wrapped round it and current flowing through the wire A conductor carrying a current (I) induces a magnetic field. This due to the fact that moving charges induces magnetism and the current consists of moving (e ) What are they used for? Electromagnets are widely used in technology and are the essential components of relays and circuit breakers. Electromagnets are also used in electromagnetic clutches and brakes. In some streetcars, electromagnetic brakes grip directly onto the rails. Very large electromagnets having cores several meters in diameter are used in cyclotrons, and high-power electromagnets are used to lift iron parts or scrap. This was Found From Encarta This has helped me so now I see a point in the experiment. Also people who use the high-powered electromagnet would need to know how to get it high powered. Keeping in mind current costs money so they may choose to use another way with a lower current. About Electromagnets (Core) The iron core in an electromagnet is full of magnetic domains, which are randomly pointing anywhere therefore cancelling them out. When an electric current is passed through the coil; this induces a strong magnetic field. The iron core is then placed in this field; causing the domains to point in one direction (The direction of the field.)

Middle

Leaving 15mm on the right and 50mm on the left end of iron core. Arrange circuit including electromagnet and ammeter. When all is set-up without turning the power on see if the electromagnet picks up any iron filings if it does weigh the amount. If it does this will be because some of the domains are lined up because of another experiment. Then put the power up until the ammeter reads 1 amp then place electromagnet in iron filing and measure the mass. Repeat this going up an amp each time until 6 amps is reached because any higher is dangerous. Repeat experiment 3 times using same variables. Results Amount of amps Mass of Iron filings picked up, on first go (grams). Mass of Iron filings picked up, On second go (grams) Mass of Iron filings picked up, On third go (grams) 1 0.10 0.07 0.11 2 0.26 0.29 0.28 3 0.59 0.52 0.52 4 1.23 0.92 1.43 5 1.86 1.77 2.22 6 2.34 2.45 2.59 Averages Current (Amps) Average of results 1 0.09 2 0.28 3 0.54 4 1.19 5 1.95 6 2.46 Analysing From my graph I can see that as the current increases the strength of the magnet does. Does the strength of the electromagnet double as the current does at any point using my graph. 1A=0.17 2A=0.34 3A=0.60 4A=1 My best fit line shows that from 1 to 2 the mass of iron filings has doubled as well as the current (0.17*2=0.34)

Conclusion

Although most of it hasn't been backed up, "if the current has doubled so will the amount of iron filings that are picked up." This is due to the fact the electromagnet became more efficient. Also this part of my prediction wasn't backed up, "when the magnetization of the core reaches its saturation level (When all the magnetic domains are turned in the direction of the magnetic field) the increase of current will have little effect on the current." Even though my results were unable to back this up I still think this will happen if the current was high enough. Another reason why I would like to increase the current is to be surer about my best-fit line. As the last 2 results could be anomalies and the best fit line linear. I think the experiment went well however if I did it again I would: 1) Make sure residual magnetism wasn't an issue 2) Be more firm with variables (for example no iron filings on crocodile clips and no dropping iron filings) 3) The current was increased so I have a good chance to back up my prediction. From this experiment I know how companies that use high-powered electromagnet do to make them high powered however I think this is an expensive way so another way may be more appropriate for example amount of turns and surface area of core. Electromagnets Coursework By Samantha price 1

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