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# Energy and its uses

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Fundamentals of science.

Energy transfer systems

Types of energy

Measurement of energy

Examples of energy transfer

Dewi Hanks

ND Forensic Science

Year 1

Contents………………………………………………………………. Page 2

Introduction…………………………………………………………... Page 3

Energy Terminology………………………………………………….. Page 4 – 7

Energy Interconversions…………………………………………….... Page 8 – 15

Risk assessment Burning Peanut……………………………………... Page 16

Burning Peanut experiment…………………………………………... Page 17 – 19

Risk assessment heating metal block………………………………… Page 20

Heating of metal block experiment…………………………………... Page 21 – 24

Conclusions…………………………………………………………... Page 25

INTRODUCTION

In this report I intend to explain the fundamentals of energy and its Interconversions.

In order to do this I will be covering the following topics:

Types of energy

Measurement of energy

Examples of energy transfer

I will also include two experiments with their results and in order to show the equations and computations used to show energy transfer amounts and the efficiency of the experiments.

Energy terminology

Types of energy

1.        Kinetic energy is the energy of movement. Any moving body whilst in motion has kinetic energy; the amount of kinetic energy being dependent on its mass and speed. The larger the mass and the faster it moves the more kinetic energy it has.

KE = ½ x mass x velocity squared

## Kinetic Energy

www.treklens.com

2.          Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is the stored energy possessed by a body that can fall. A ball tossed in the air gains GPE until it reaches the apex of its travel, this then converts to kinetic energy as it falls

PE = mass x gravity x height

www.citruscollege.edu

3.        Elastic potential energy (EPE) is the energy stored in bodies such as springs, elastic and rubber bands.

Middle

1. Hand wheel drives dynamo to light lamp

Chemical energy from metabolised foods was supplied by a person to the hand wheel this was converted to rotational energy with losses due to heat and friction, it was then converted to kinetic energy along the belt with energy loss due to friction, heat and sound, this was then converted to rotational energy at the dynamo with loss from friction and heat, it was then converted to electrical energy and transmitted through wires to the bulb where it was converted to thermal energy with losses due to electrical resistance and heat.

1. Battery drives lamps (stored electrical energy)

A PSU was used to supply electric energy to a lead/ acid battery, this energy was converted to chemical energy in the battery with losses due to electrical resistance and heat. When this supply of electric was cut off and a switch thrown the chemical energy (stored electrical energy) in the battery was converted to electrical energy with losses due to electrical resistance and heat, this was then transmitted through wires to the bulb where it was converted to thermal energy with some loss due to electrical resistance and heat.

1. Solar (electromagnetic radiation) panel array and lamp drives electric fan.

Solar and thermal energy was generated through the use of a desk lamp with an enclosed 100 watt bulb

Conclusion

 BRASS MILD STEEL TIME(MINS) TEMP ˚C TEMP ˚C 1 26.0 24.0 2 29.5 26.0 3 32.5 28.5 4 35.0 30.0 5 37.5 32.0 6 40.0 34.0 7 42.0 36.0 8 44.0 37.5 9 46.0 39.5 10 48.0 41.0

TABLE A: Temperature rise in metal block over 10 minutes.

 Experiment 1BRASS Experiment 2MILD STEEL Ammeter reading, I /A 2.9 2.9 Voltmeter reading, V / v 11.2 11.2 Initial temperature of metal, θ2 / ˚C 22.0 22.0 Maximum temperature of metal, θ1 / ˚C 48.0 41.0 Time of heating, t / s 600 600 Mass of metal block, m / kg 1.0 1.0

TABLE B: Experimental measurements.

 Metal C Value ( specific heat capacity ) Jkg¯¹ K¯¹ Aluminium 910 Mild Steel 525 Copper 389 Brass 388

TABLE C: Specific heat capacity of metal blocks available.

CALCULATIONS:

If c is the specific heat capacity of the metal, then, assuming no heat losses:

Energy supplied, I V t = mc (θ2 - θ1)

Energy supplied to the block = I V t

BRASS = 2.9 x 11.2 x 600 = 19488

MILD STEEL =   2.9 x 11.2 x 600 = 19488

Thermal energy gained by the block =   mc (θ2 - θ1)

BRASS = 1 x 388 x (48 – 22) = 1 x 388 x 26 = 10088

MILD STEEL:  1 x 525 x (41 – 22) = 1 x 388 x 19 = 9975

Efficiency of energy transfer in the experiments =

Energy output / energy input x 100 %

BRASS= 10088 / 19488 x 100 % = 51.8 %

MILD STEEL = 9975 / 19488 x 100 % = 51.2 %

CONCLUSIONS:

The heating of the metal block provided us with a much more efficient model of energy transfer than did the burning peanut experiment, this was most probably due to there being less variables that could not be controlled in the metal block experiment and due to the fact that we had a continuous, regulated source of power rather than being reliant on the steadiness of the human hand for the heating process.

It also leads to the conclusion that electricity provides a much more efficient means for the transfer of thermal energy.

References:

Publications:

Azzopardi and Stewart (1995) Accessible Physics, Macmillan Press

Internet sites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/  (accessed 27/09/08)

http://www.oxfordreference.com  (accessed 27/09/08)

www.treklens.com  (accessed 10/10/08)

www.citruscollege.edu  (accessed 10/10/08)

science.howstuffworks.com (accessed 10/10/08)

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Fields & Forces section.

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## Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

### Response to the question

This information booklet contains a nice summary of the different types of energy, and examples of energy changing between these forms. The writer refers to 'applying' different types of potential energy on several equations, when they should write that a ...

### Response to the question

This information booklet contains a nice summary of the different types of energy, and examples of energy changing between these forms. The writer refers to 'applying' different types of potential energy on several equations, when they should write that a certain energy is converted or stored as potential energy. The concise explanations of how energy is changing with certain experimental setups are clear and understandable by a wide crowd.

### Level of analysis

The terminology used is good on the whole. However, the writer writes the unit of energy as 'j' or Kj'; having lower-case letters where upper case letters should be and vice versa. It's important that people don't fall into this trap, as the case of the letter is just as important as the letter itself. He on one occasion wrote 'Battery drives lamps' as a subtitle; and even though this is explored in more detail I believe more accurate vocabulary should be used.

### Quality of writing

The experiment "Investigating the efficiency of energy transfer from a burning peanut" is well set out, though it is missing a hypothesis at the beginning and units in a table should always be in brackets in the same field as the row title. The writer missed out that energy is actually mostly provided by the bunsen burner itself, and very little of the chemical energy in the peanut is 'released'. This renders this experiment fairly pointless. Calculations are solid however, with the writer citing his sources for information. In the second experiment, similar problems are present with presentation, along with forgetting to write down units after working out energy gained by the blocks (J). The conclusions could be more fleshed out, with more details on how he could improve the experiments if he could try again.

Reviewed by hassi94 11/03/2012

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