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Enzymes Extra.

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Enzymes Extra A catalyst is an enzyme that increases the rate of a reaction by changing the way a reaction takes place. It usually stays the same and does not change at the end of a reaction. You would call this an uncatalyzed reaction in a cell and may take place eventually, but not at a rate fast enough for survival. Let's say for example the hydrolysis of proteins in our diet would occur at a point and time without a catalyst, but not fast enough to meet the body's requirement for amino acids. The chemical reaction must occur at an extremely fast rate under mild conditions of ph 7.4 and a body temperature of 37�C it is very important for the body to remain this warm. The heat from our bodies assists with the speed of whatever necessary molecules that are being used in our bodies. A biological catalyst is known as an enzyme and catalyzes nearly all the chemical reactions that take place in the body. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy and it is not used up in the reaction. There are many types of enzymes and each one plays an important role in the function and maintaining of cells. ...read more.


The structure of the enzyme plays an important role in how that enzyme catalyzes reactions. A typical enzyme is much larger than its substrate. However, there is a region called the active site where the enzyme binds a substrate or substrates and catalyzes the reaction. The active site is a small little pocket that fits the structure of the substrate. The active site of a particular enzyme fits the shape of only a few types of substrates, which makes enzymes very specific about the type of substrate they bind. Enzymes has an activity process which describes how fast an enzyme catalyzes the reaction that converts a substrate to product. Enzymes are sensitive to temperature. In being sensitive to temperature they show a small amount of activity at low temperatures because there is not enough sufficient amount of energy. Enzymes activity plays a great role in increased temperatures, meaning reacting molecules move faster to cause more collisions with enzymes. Doing a simple kitchen experiment yourself you can see the activity of enzymes. You would be able to see with your own eyes the activity of enzymes if you were to slice an apple or banana. You would see that the enzyme activity of the apple is much slower than the enzyme activity of the banana. ...read more.


(Biology Third Edition, David Krough) When spoken above of the autoclave, the autoclave is meant to break or change the shape of bacteria causing enzymes to denature or destroy them. The enzyme will change and the enzyme will not fit the substrate. Meaning no chemical reaction will take place at all. The enzymes are called organic catalyst and they are not used up in the reactions they regulate. They can be used over and over again. Enzymes can drive a chemical reaction both ways depending on the needs of the cell. They can connect smaller molecules to form a larger molecule (dehydration synthesis). They can also take a large molecule and split it into smaller molecules (hydrolysis). The turn over number is the reaction per minute that an enzyme can regulate. This can be as high as 100,000 reactions per minute. Enzymatic inhibition - a fake substrate will tie up enzymes which regulate certain chemical reaction. The false substrate looks normal but when the enzymes grab it, the enzymes can not let go. The enzyme is inactivated because it can't release the fake substrate and complete it reaction. Insecticides are an example of a fake substrate. In speaking of enzymes we see that there are many different enzymes and they all have many different functions to our every day life. I can say I've learn a lot about enzymes is doing my research and reading up on certain materials. ...read more.

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