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Enzymes in Medicine and Industry.

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Introduction

Enzymes in Medicine and Industry Enzymology is a critical part of understanding the cause of diseases. Most genetic diseases are a result of a particular enzyme deficiency. Therapeutic enzymes can be used as direct pharmaceutical products e.g. in the treatment of genetic disorders that could lead to an enzyme deficiency. One example is the use of blood clotting factors to treat haemoplilia, or the opposite where proteases are used to degrade fibrin (4). Also some enzymes are used to help diagnose diseases, for example glucose is always measured by an enzyme based test utilising glucose oxidase. Diabetics use strips of paper impregnated with glucose oxidase to monitor their blood sugar. However, the presence of enzymes where they should not be is also a symptom of disease. For example when the liver is diseased or damaged, enzymes only found normally in the liver leak into the bloodstream. Testing the blood for these activities is used to confirm liver damage (1). ...read more.

Middle

This means they are denatured to inactive protein during the baking process. (2) During dough formation a portion of the starch is degraded by �-amylase to maltose which is utilised by the yeast to form carbon dioxide which causes the dough to rise. However, the amount of degradation is very limited and can be increased by the addition of ?-amylase. Use of ?-amylase can also help prolong freshness. Chemical oxidants are used in baking to strengthen the gluten. Enzymes such as glucose oxidase can replace such chemical oxidants. This enzyme oxidises sulphydryl groups in the gluten chemical structure to make the dough stronger. If too much enzyme is put in the bread usually results in a loss of structure, resulting in bread that does not rise properly or that will cause problems in bakery machinery because it is too sticky. (1) As well as bread, enzymes are well known for their use in the brewing industry. ...read more.

Conclusion

This technique has become known as Biopolishing and results in not only a softer fabric but also improved colour brightness. The same process has recently been adapted and included in some laundry detergents. (1) The main enzyme activity in biological laundry detergents is protease, which acts on organic stains such as grass, blood, egg and human sweat. However, it has become more common in recent years to include a mixture of enzymes including lipases and amylases. Lipases are effective on stains resulting from fatty products such as oils and fats whilst amylases help remove starchy food deposits. (5) There are many ways in which enzymes are used today, and many more ways that are being developed. Without enzymes being used in industry, it would be much more difficult for many industries to continue, especially with such high quality products. It would also be harder to prevent and diagnose diseases, and to treat them once they have been diagnosed. Therefore enzymes are very important to our way of living. ...read more.

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