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Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

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Introduction

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes In this essay, I will describe what eukaryotes and prokaryotes are, their cellular structure and functions. Also I will be taking a look at the endosymbiotic theory - specifically looking at mitochondria and chloroplasts. Firstly I would like to show some of the common features between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are: 1. DNA - the genetic material within one or more chromosomes. In Eukaryotic cells, DNA is located in a membrane-bound nucleous, and in a prokaryotic cell, it is located in a non-membrane bound nucleoid region. 2. Plasma Membrane - protects their contents and act as a barrier to the environment. Small molecules like Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and water can pass through the membrane, but larger molecules such as amino acids and sugars are carefully filtered. 3. Cytoplasm - the watery fluid that makes up the rest of the cell. It can be defined as anything between the membrane and nucleus. ...read more.

Middle

It is also the same for plant cells. There are many functions within these plant cells. A few examples of these are: - A root hair cell takes water and mineral ions from the soil. - A palisade cell carries out photosynthesis. - An xylem is a pipeline carrying water from the roots to the leaves. - Pollen grains (male gametes) fertilise the ovules (female gametes). Prokaryotes A prokaryote is a cell that does not have a membrane-bounded nucleus or membrane bounded organelles. Prokaryotic cells are less advanced than eukaryotic cells that evolved from them. A bacterium is a prokaryotic organism that only consists of one single prokaryotic cell. There are three architectural regions within a general prokaryotic cell: - a cell envelope which consists of a capsule, cell wall and a cell membrane - a region containing the cell genome (DNA), ribosomes and various inclusions is called a cytoplasmic region - Flagella and pili are appendages, which are sometimes present. ...read more.

Conclusion

A theory first proposed by Lynn Margulis............are mitochondria and chloroplasts. (Taken from Encyclopedia of Science at www.daviddarling.info) - Mitochondria Mitochondria are self-replacing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. They contain their own genome, which is separate to the one found in the nucleus of the cell. There is a vital metabolic pathway for generating energy in eukaryotic cells; this is called the Kerb's cycle. -Chloroplasts A chloroplast is an organelle found within the cells of green plants and eukaryotic algae, both of which contain chlorophyll and the enzymes necessary for photosynthesis. From researching the eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and the Endosymbiotic Theory, I found a lot of information along with diagrams and tables, which were extremely informative and helpful with my research. The information, diagrams and tables I used to help create my essay were from the web pages: www.daviddarling.info www.textbookofbacteriology.net www.mrs.umn.edu Joanne Telford - Biology Assignment 19/10/07 ...read more.

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