• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Evaluate the pros and cons of genetic engineering, artificial selection and cloning.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction: The purpose of this essay is to investigate the title and evaluate the pros and cons of genetic engineering, artificial selection and cloning. Terms. A gene is what determines the inheritance of a particular characteristic, or a group of characteristics, for a particular organism. Such characteristics determined include sex, hair colour and inherited diseases. Alleles are different variants on a particular gene, for example, a gene which determines eye colour will have different alleles which determine different colours. Chromosomes are what carry genes in pairs, and are found in the nucleus of most cells. The actual genetic material which gene are made of is deoxyribonucleic acid, which is more commonly known as DNA. Strands of DNA are made up of combinations of four different bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, which are grouped into threes to code for an amino acid. Different combinations of these amino acids produce proteins. A single gene can be made up of hundreds or thousands of the bases on a strand of DNA. The order of the bases controls the order in which the amino acids are assembled so that they make a particular protein for use in the body cells. ...read more.

Middle

When genetic engineering or cloning is mentioned, all sorts of issues arise which in some cases sound beneficial and in others quite worrying. Here such allegations and ideas are examined. Possible benefits and arguments for artificial selection, genetic engineering and cloning are as follows: Artificial selection is hugely beneficial in enhancing the usefulness of organisms to mankind. It is a technique which has been used for centuries and has changed little (apart from in scale). In has mainly influenced food production and other products such as wool or cotton production, and in fact many of the typical 'farmyard' animals are even plants are the result of extensive artificial selection. Increased food yield is one possible benefit which could be acquired from genetic engineering. In fact for years plants and animals have been subject to artificial selection to combine their most useful elements, such as obesity, to increase food yield; amongst other resources, such as wool. Genetic engineering could enhance this process, allowing it to be more effective and efficient, and therefore could be part of the solution to the world's ever increasing hunger. Another possible benefit of genetic engineering could be the possibility of enhancing ourselves in several ways. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because there could be two possible consequences of not doing so. First, as described earlier, we do not fully know or understand the whole process, and a gap in our knowledge could have minor, if not major consequences upon the environment which could possibly be irreversible. Second, public opinion is very much against genetic engineering even though many people do not understand it. If genetic engineering is to succeed, then the general public need to be given more information on it's benefits, not just it's potential disadvantages. Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues, particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature. So there obviously needs to be a fine balance between what is considered 'right' and what is considered 'wrong'. If genetic engineering ever does Also, there would need to be a fine balance between what is 'right', i.e., what is morally and socially acceptable, and what is 'wrong'. Once again, making sure a new-born child does not have a life- threatening disorder must be a good thing, but making sure a child is intelligent or strong raises question marks. List of reference: Biology for AQA http://www.biology-online.org/2/13_genetic_engineering.htm http://www.encarta.com http://www.infoplease.com http://www.ecoglobe.org.nz/gebiotec/gebiotec.htm Giles Prowse 03/08/2003 Artificial selection and genetic engineering are two ways in which humans are able to manipulate the form or function of living organisms (including themselves). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering

    4 star(s)

    This supply of insulin is also not dependant on the supply of pancreatic tissue from animals. Recombinant factor VIII, the blood clotting agent missing in people suffering from haemophilia, can also be created by genetic engineering. Virtually all people who were treated with factor VIII before 1985 acquired HIV, and later AIDS.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Nature vs. Nurture - And its affect on intelligence, personality, and behavior

    4 star(s)

    All in all, nature does in fact have great importance as the determining factor of personality and behavior. In the same way that the nature viewpoint plays a role on the development of different personalities and behaviors, nurture produces an equal effect.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Cloning Assignment

    4 star(s)

    This technology could also be used to produce skin for burn victims, brain cells, spinal cords, livers, lungs, and any other organs needed. But this may never come about if there are laws prohibiting cloning and its research. Another benefit of cloning is that it can give couples that cannot

  2. Marked by a teacher

    natural selection and the effects of environmental change

    3 star(s)

    He noticed that life got more complex, he called this the complexifying force, he also noticed that life seemed to be very much adapted to its environment; he called this the adaptive force. But he made fundamental mistakes; he disregarded modern chemistry, and ran with traditional alchemical science that rested

  1. Peer reviewed

    The cloning of Dolly.

    4 star(s)

    of, God's frequent reminders to humanity, that God's binding laws are foremost in the nature and human beings cannot wilfully create, "unless God, the Lord of all Being, wills." (81:29) This is what it read: "The will of God" in the Qur'an has often been interpreted as the "processes of nature uninterfered with by human action."

  2. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    0 90 10 0 80 0 20 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 19.000 34.576 Simpson's Diversity Index- Non-Trampled Area (Area 1)- Species n n-1 n(n-1)

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    To embrace their neuro-diversity, autistics are not getting the best education, thus not obtaining proper grades. These barriers have nothing to do with individual disabled people's bodies; they are created by people, meaning it is possible to remove them. From the information contained in the New Scientist Journal, further research

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    Currently this technique is applicable to thalassemias, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (see Genetic Disorders). A future medical use of genetic engineering is for gene therapy. Persons who are born with a congenital disorder resulting from a defective gene could have a sound gene inserted into their cells, preventing the manifestations of the disease.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work