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Explain enzyme-substrate specificity.

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Introduction

IB Biology SL III Ryan Martucci Topic: 2 - The Chemistry of Life 12-20-02 8th period Sub-topic: 2.3 - Enzymes 2.3.1 1 Define enzyme and active site. An enzyme is a biological catalyst, or a chemical agent that accelerates a reaction without permanently changed in the process so it can be used over and over, made up of proteins. An active site is a specific region on the enzyme that binds to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds. This site usually is a pocket or groove on the protein's surface. 2.3.2 3 Explain enzyme-substrate specificity. An enzyme has a substrate that they are specific to that is the substance an enzyme acts on and makes more reactive. ...read more.

Middle

Topic: 2 - The Chemistry of Life Sub-topic: 2.3 - Enzymes Page: 2 2.3.3 3 Explain the effects of temperature, pH and substrate concentration on enzyme activity. (c.r. with 5.6.1) Enzymes are sensitive to temperature changes and their activity increases as temperature increases. There activity doubles every 10 degrees C with optimum temperature at 40-45 degrees C. Also above the optimum temperature, enzyme activity decreases until the enzyme is destroyed or also known as denaturation. At 0 degrees Celsius enzymes are not denatured, but inactive. This inactivation is reversible, and can act again by increasing the temperature unlike denaturation that is irreversible. Most enzymes work best at neutral pH, but some digestive enzymes work at different optimum pH degrees, for example pepsin in the stomach works at an acidic pH. ...read more.

Conclusion

All of the active sites of enzymes become occupied by the substrate. If more enzymes are added at this stage of full reaction time then the rate of reaction increases again then stabilizes again. Topic: 2 - The Chemistry of Life Sub-topic: 2.3 - Enzymes Page: 3 2.3.4 1 Define denaturation. Denaturation is the process of destroying an enzyme by raising the temperature and disrupting there three-dimensional structure. This process is irreversible. 2.3.5 3 Explain the use of pectinase in fruit juice production, and one other commercial application of enzymes in biotechnology. Pectinase is used in fruit juice production to break down the acidity of the juices. In brewing the enzymes present in barley grains at germination are used to convert the starch stored in the grain to sugars and the proteins to amino acids. These converted things are then used by yeast for growth and alcohol production. ...read more.

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