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Explain the term "genetic engineering". Using three different examples of the application of this technique, assess its advantages and disadvantages.

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ESSAY SUBJECT: ENGLISH TITLE: Explain the term "genetic engineering". Using three different examples of the application of this technique, assess its advantages and disadvantages. DATE: 16/03/2002 NAME: Qimin Liu GROUP: D Since human science was being developed up to modern history, genetic engineering is a greatest progress that can able to affect the development of human beings and human societies in the future. Therefore, the aim of this essay is to explain what genetic engineering is and introduce the advantages and disadvantages to people by giving some typical examples. At the beginning, I would like to bring the definition of genetic engineering out and introduce its applications in early days. Secondly, I am going to talk about the functions of genetic engineering techniques that can be used in various fields of science. And then I will use three different examples of the application of genetic engineering technique to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, I would like to appraise the views about genetic engineering in eyes of people nowadays, I also will introduce the assumption that about the development of genetic engineering in the future. If the 1980s were the decade of the computer microchip, the 1990s have already become the decade of the gene, and many home have contained substances or living organisms resulting from genetic engineering. In general, genetic engineering means the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another such as from fish to tomato or from human to pig. ...read more.


In general, the benefits for agriculture by using genetic engineering is that biotechnology is needed to feed the growing population of the world, especially the Third World, it could reduce chemical inputs, which will be good for the environment, and it makes higher yields, which is benefiting farmers and consumers. Also genetic engineering have other more uses for agriculture but there are some risks that are brought by it. We can divide these risks into two core parts, one is health risk and another is environmental risk. For health, there is a proof already exists that allergens can be transferred to plants through genetic engineering; some genetically engineered foods have killed some people; we could waste our defence against disease; spread of virulence among pathogens across species by genes transfer and recombination. For environment, planet-wide genetic engineering tests, releases and crop growing could influence the normal environment; new 'super crops' with an inbuilt resistance to disease or pests could become 'super weeds'; there are risks relating to gene transfer from genetically engineered plants to micro-organisms; new plant viruses could develop from genetically engineered crops that are virus resistant; major insect pest could develop bio-pesticide resistance; some smaller genetic companies will inevitably take risks when they are playing catch-up; "genetic pollution" by self-replicating genetically modified organisms is irreversible. In the aspect of medicine, people can apply genetic engineering into it nowadays. Cell is the basic unit to form body, and in an organism, cells depend on each other to perform various functions and tasks; some cells will produce ...read more.


Besides, cloning could influence the heredity of human, which is the same case as what we mentioned before. People could clone better stuffs such as minds, appearances to their prenatal babies and make them be smarter or more beautiful. But it is incorrect in the ethic of human societies. Therefore, many countries have already established some laws to avoid human cloning. However, there are some benefits from human cloning such as clone organ, tissue for medical care. For example, human cloning technology could be used to cure heart attacks; it could be used in plastic, reconstructive and cosmetic surgery; also it is possible to ensure that we no longer suffer because of our defective genes in the future. Consequently, human cloning is a vexed topic among people all over the world. In conclusion, all we mentioned above are about the applications of genetic technique in terms of agriculture, medicine and cloning. Although genetic engineering brings some benefits for us, there are still some problems and debates about it. Could new genes destroy us? When is gene technology right or wrong? Should we birth genetically engineered babies to improve our breed? All of these and other more questions are regard by everyone but nobody could answer an exact answer. So what scientists should do is do further research about genetic engineering and solve difficulties which are potential for us now. We hope the success of genetic revolution will be achieved in the future history of human beings. ...read more.

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