• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination).

Extracts from this document...


Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the conversion of glucose into glycogen which can then be stored in the liver and muscles. When there is an excess of glucose in the body, the pancreas produces insulin, which converts glucose to glucose - 6 - phosphate and ultimately to glycogen. Carbohydrates are made up of many single sugars (monosaccharides) ...read more.


This is one triglyceride; many animals store triglycerides as energy, because gram for gram they yield more than twice as much energy as proteins or carbohydrates. Due to the large amounts of C - H bonds, they can break down in respiration to form energy. Lipids are not as large as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, and so when they need to be transported around the body they can easily diffuse through the barriers, they need to move with the concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of relative lower concentration. When lipids first enter the body through food they must move through the digestive system, they are broken down and converted to micelles (microscopic droplets) these dissolve in water and pass through into the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Once inside the cells the fatty acids and glycerol can regroup and form triglycerides, but added to this is a protein coat which stops them sticking together, they are now ready to leave the cell in the form of chylomicrons. These molecules do not go into the blood stream, but into the lacteal, a branch of the lymphatic system. The chylomicrons remain suspended in the lymph fluid giving it a milky white colour until they move into a larger lymphatic vessel and eventually drained into a large duct, which empties into the blood. ...read more.


Deamination is the catabolic metabolism process, which breaks down the amino acids by removing the amino group (NH2) converting the amino acid to ammonia (NH3). The resulting products are: - an organic acid, which is respired, and ammonia, which is toxic to the body. The ammonia is quickly further broken down to form a less harmful product, urea in the ornithine cycle, shown below, and is removed by the kidneys. Transamination is the metabolic process of synthesising amino acids by converting other substances. There are 20 amino acids that we use in the body, eight of these are essential and must be eaten in the diet, as they cannot be synthesised by the human body. The other twelve amino acids are classed as 'non-essential', as they can be synthesised by the metabolic process transamination, which takes place in the liver. An amino group is removed from an amino acid and transferred to an acid, making a new amino acid. This shows that both metabolic reactions are important, if there are too many amino acids in the body, they must be broken down by deamination, if there are not enough of the 'non-essential' amino acids they must be synthesised by transamination. All metabolic reactions are important in the body, they produce things that we need and remove the substances that are no longer required, and this helps to keep the body functioning properly. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    of bringing forth a child, a fully developed foetus from the uterus to the vagina and finally to the outside world. Childbirth is categorized in three stages of labour: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and delivery of the infant, and delivery of the placenta.

  2. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    It happens that starch is broken down to form maltose, maltose is broken down into glucose and glucose breaks down according to either the aerobic or anaerobic respiration equation, depending on the conditions. Therefore, Brewer's use anaerobic (airtight) conditions and most of the reaction happens according to this equation: C6H12O6=

  1. Peer reviewed

    The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

    5 star(s)

    Although tea tree shows it is very effective, as stated in the background it is not possible to use in-vivo conditions. Tea tree has proved to be extremely effective against E.coli but not so effective against M.luteus, whereas most of the other products stayed closely similar in affect with both bacteria's.

  2. Blood System Assignemnt

    Have valves throughout the main veins of the body. These are to prevent blood flowing in the wrong direction, as this could (in theory) return waste materials to the tissues. B. Explain the way in which blood circulates through the heart. Describe how the heartbeat is initiated and modified to meet all situations.

  1. Rate of Respiration

    boiling tubes are equal at 40C, I will add the substrate to the yeast solution, as the yeast is suspended in solution. I will then measure the temperature of the boiling tubes. I will measure the temperatures of both boiling tubes (of substrate and yeast)

  2. the role of the microbiology department

    Thus, their finding in sputum might be reported, 'Acid fast bacilli resembling tubercle bacilli seen in film. Particular care must be given to the policy for the wording of negative reports. These should be phrased in such a way as to indicate which pathogens were sought and not found.

  1. The Endocrine System

    in the liver. The most abundant glucocorticoid is cortisol (also known as hydrocortisone). Cortisol and the other glucocorticoids also have a potent anti-inflammatory effect on the body. They depress the immune response. For this reason glucocorticoids are widely used in therapy: a.

  2. Role of the Biochemistry Department

    Glucose in urine may indicate diabetes or 'leaky' kidneys where glucose may leak into urine even with a normal blood glucose level. Therefore, a blood glucose test will be performed to confirm or rule out diabetes. When the body does not have enough insulin, fats are used for fuel instead of glucose.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work