• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the conversion of glucose into glycogen which can then be stored in the liver and muscles. When there is an excess of glucose in the body, the pancreas produces insulin, which converts glucose to glucose - 6 - phosphate and ultimately to glycogen. Carbohydrates are made up of many single sugars (monosaccharides) ...read more.

Middle

This is one triglyceride; many animals store triglycerides as energy, because gram for gram they yield more than twice as much energy as proteins or carbohydrates. Due to the large amounts of C - H bonds, they can break down in respiration to form energy. Lipids are not as large as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, and so when they need to be transported around the body they can easily diffuse through the barriers, they need to move with the concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of relative lower concentration. When lipids first enter the body through food they must move through the digestive system, they are broken down and converted to micelles (microscopic droplets) these dissolve in water and pass through into the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Once inside the cells the fatty acids and glycerol can regroup and form triglycerides, but added to this is a protein coat which stops them sticking together, they are now ready to leave the cell in the form of chylomicrons. These molecules do not go into the blood stream, but into the lacteal, a branch of the lymphatic system. The chylomicrons remain suspended in the lymph fluid giving it a milky white colour until they move into a larger lymphatic vessel and eventually drained into a large duct, which empties into the blood. ...read more.

Conclusion

Deamination is the catabolic metabolism process, which breaks down the amino acids by removing the amino group (NH2) converting the amino acid to ammonia (NH3). The resulting products are: - an organic acid, which is respired, and ammonia, which is toxic to the body. The ammonia is quickly further broken down to form a less harmful product, urea in the ornithine cycle, shown below, and is removed by the kidneys. Transamination is the metabolic process of synthesising amino acids by converting other substances. There are 20 amino acids that we use in the body, eight of these are essential and must be eaten in the diet, as they cannot be synthesised by the human body. The other twelve amino acids are classed as 'non-essential', as they can be synthesised by the metabolic process transamination, which takes place in the liver. An amino group is removed from an amino acid and transferred to an acid, making a new amino acid. This shows that both metabolic reactions are important, if there are too many amino acids in the body, they must be broken down by deamination, if there are not enough of the 'non-essential' amino acids they must be synthesised by transamination. All metabolic reactions are important in the body, they produce things that we need and remove the substances that are no longer required, and this helps to keep the body functioning properly. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Oxytocin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and prostaglandins by the placenta. These hormones are released when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina. The hormones enhance the contraction of the uterine smooth muscle to facilitate birth. This contractions causes tension and pressure on the cervix, which in turn

  2. Peer reviewed

    The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

    5 star(s)

    These anomalous results could have occurred for a number of reasons. As already mentioned the concentration of the product on each disc could have been different, therefore either causing the inhibition zone to be larger if the concentration was strong or smaller if it was a low concentration.

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    In this investigation we used three different carbohydrate substrates; glucose, sucrose and starch. Carbohydrates play a vital role in respiration in living organisms, to make the energy they need to live. Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar made up of one molecule with 6 carbon atoms in it and is known as a hexose sugar because of this.

  2. Rate of Respiration

    I will take the reading of the meniscus, to identify where the starting point of water is and then deduct any changes from that to calculate the actual change in volume (caused by production of C02 gas) 4. I will read from the apex of the meniscus to ensure that accurate readings are taken 5.

  1. Role of the Biochemistry Department

    You dip a dipstick in your urine and follow the instruction on the package to see if you have a high amount of ketones. c) Blood Cholesterol Tests Blood tests serve a number of purposes when diagnosing people with cardiovascular conditions or who are at risk of developing heart disease.

  2. The Endocrine System

    Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal glands. The secretion of it leads to increased metabolism, breathing and heart rate. Once the emergency is over, and adrenaline levels drop, the homeostatic controls are once again back in place Some of the effects are: * Increase in the rate and strength of the heartbeat resulting in increased blood pressure.

  1. the role of the microbiology department

    The simplest incubators are insulated boxes with an adjustable heater, typically going up to 60 to 65 �C (140 to 150 �F), though some can go slightly higher (generally to no more than 100 �C). More elaborate incubators can also include the ability to lower the temperature (via refrigeration), or the ability to control humidity or CO2 levels.

  2. AN ACCOUNT OF NITROGENOUS EXCRETION IN MAMMALS Excretion is the disposal of the waste ...

    The excretory organ of mammals is the kidney. A pair of kidneys occurs in the dorsal wall of the body cavity, the coelom, with a supply of blood from the dorsal aorta via renal arteries, and drained by renal veins.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work