• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explosives experiment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Explosives. Oxidation Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Oxidation occurs when gunpowder explodes, it contains carbon, sulphur and potassium nitrate. The carbon and sulphur are both oxidised to form gases. The potassium nitrate carries oxygen, meaning it is an oxidising agent and gunpowder carries it's own oxygen supply for the reactions. This makes the explosion very powerful as the oxygen is available as soon as the gunpowder is ignited. C(s) + O2(g) --> CO2(g) The carbon gains oxygen and it's oxidation number increases from 0 to +4 making CO2. Oxidation means there is a faster reaction as there are oxygen molecules to react with. The more oxygen molecules the more violent the reaction. Development Gunpowder was the first explosive used, it was a good explosive as it contained it's own oxygen supply. It was made of carbon, sulphur and potassium nitrate (the oxidiser). However it produced large quantities of white smoke so wasn't effective as a weapon as it obscured the opposition. Cellulose nitrate was then produced by reacting cellulose with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. ...read more.

Middle

To make the gunpowder explode a percussion cap was used. Dynamite 2 was even more effective as it was more violent, the nitro-glycerine was mixed with substances which actually burnt on their own, making it very powerful. The most recent explosive is TNT which contains nitro groups instead of nitrate groups. It doesn't react with metals so can be transported and carried easily. High Explosives and Low Explosives For an explosive reaction to occur energy has to be given out and therefore it must be exothermic. For this to happen the energy given out to the surroundings when bonds form has to be greater than the amount of energy taken in when bonds become broken. The strength of the explosive depends on the energy difference made between making and breaking bonds. The greater the difference the more forceful the explosion. For it to be an effective explosion the reaction must take place immediately so that the majority of energy is given out at the same time. ...read more.

Conclusion

This high temperature and pressure means that this way is very productive as it is a fast process, also made faster by the use of a catalyst. Health and Safety Experiments did not follow safety regulations , for example, Ascanio Sobrero was cut with pieces of glass on his hands and face, showing that no safety controls took place, such as goggles and a lab coat. Sobrero also tasted the chemicals he produced to see how harmful they were, and suffered side-effects. Experiments were not carried in controlled labs, but in homes, as a German scientist spilt some acid on a piece of clothing whilst he was completing an experiment. People who worked in factories were not properly cared for as they suffered from headaches and anaemia showing that they were given the correct equipment to protect them from the harmful effects of TNT. Nobel's brother was killed as a result of the experiments, so the further experiments needed to be carried out on a barge. This meant that if there was an accident then not many people would die from it and the damage would be limited. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Preparation of propanone from propan-2-ol

    5 star(s)

    The crystals were collected by using a suction flask. The setup: Observations: 1. Propan-2-ol had a smell of disinfectants. 2. Propan-2-ol, sulphuric acid, the organic products were all colourless. 3. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution was yellow in colour. 4. The sulphuric acid had an irritating smell. 5. The anhydrous calcium chloride was in white granule form.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The purpose of this experiment is to compare ...

    5 star(s)

    Reaction of carbonyl compounds 1. Using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine This is used in our experiment. 2,4-DNP reacts with the carbonyl group for a condensation reaction with the elimination of a water molecule. Take propanone as an example, The product formed is a yellow colour precipitate, so we can easily distinguish the presence of C=O group.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Avoid skin contact concentrated hydrochloric acid Corrosive Causes burns. The vapour is very irritating to the respiratory system Wear eye protection. Wear protective gloves. Avoid skin contact aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) Harmful Harmful if swallowed. Irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system Wear eye protection. Wear protective gloves. Avoid skin contact Results obtained were recorded in a table format:-

  2. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Remove rubber bung and place the 250cm3 conical flask with the solution on top of the white tile (which sits on the clamp), so that it is easier to see when the solution has changed colour. 15. Once the 250cm3 conical flask has been placed on the white tile

  1. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    THE CONCENTRATION OF THESE ACIDIC OXIDES HAVE BEEN INCREASING SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION identify oxides of non-metals which act as acids and describe the conditions under which they act as acids -- Oxides contain oxygen ACIDIC OXIDES: -- Dissolves in water to form acidic solution -- React with a base to form salt and water Eg: SO2 (g)

  2. I am going to investigate the difference in enthalpy of combustion for a number ...

    the smallest alcohol, it releases 524.5 kJ mol-1, the next largest, Ethanol is one carbon and two hydrogen's larger, It release 1013 kJ mol-1 this is a difference of 488.5 kJ mol-1 this trend continues as the alcohols get larger.

  1. Preparation of Propanone

    The resulting product is wet and may be treated with inert dehydrating agents (eg: anhydrous calcium chloride) and re-distillation for purification. The ketone could be tested with a melting point pointing point test after I has reacted with a hydrazine to form a hydrazone.

  2. Free essay

    Group II metals

    One of the test tubes was added. An equal volume of sodium hydroxide solution and the same quantity of sodium carbonate solution was added to the other test tube. Both test tubes were shaken and the observation was recorded. The same procedures were applied to Calcium nitrate solution and Barium

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work