• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explosives experiment

Extracts from this document...


Explosives. Oxidation Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Oxidation occurs when gunpowder explodes, it contains carbon, sulphur and potassium nitrate. The carbon and sulphur are both oxidised to form gases. The potassium nitrate carries oxygen, meaning it is an oxidising agent and gunpowder carries it's own oxygen supply for the reactions. This makes the explosion very powerful as the oxygen is available as soon as the gunpowder is ignited. C(s) + O2(g) --> CO2(g) The carbon gains oxygen and it's oxidation number increases from 0 to +4 making CO2. Oxidation means there is a faster reaction as there are oxygen molecules to react with. The more oxygen molecules the more violent the reaction. Development Gunpowder was the first explosive used, it was a good explosive as it contained it's own oxygen supply. It was made of carbon, sulphur and potassium nitrate (the oxidiser). However it produced large quantities of white smoke so wasn't effective as a weapon as it obscured the opposition. Cellulose nitrate was then produced by reacting cellulose with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. ...read more.


To make the gunpowder explode a percussion cap was used. Dynamite 2 was even more effective as it was more violent, the nitro-glycerine was mixed with substances which actually burnt on their own, making it very powerful. The most recent explosive is TNT which contains nitro groups instead of nitrate groups. It doesn't react with metals so can be transported and carried easily. High Explosives and Low Explosives For an explosive reaction to occur energy has to be given out and therefore it must be exothermic. For this to happen the energy given out to the surroundings when bonds form has to be greater than the amount of energy taken in when bonds become broken. The strength of the explosive depends on the energy difference made between making and breaking bonds. The greater the difference the more forceful the explosion. For it to be an effective explosion the reaction must take place immediately so that the majority of energy is given out at the same time. ...read more.


This high temperature and pressure means that this way is very productive as it is a fast process, also made faster by the use of a catalyst. Health and Safety Experiments did not follow safety regulations , for example, Ascanio Sobrero was cut with pieces of glass on his hands and face, showing that no safety controls took place, such as goggles and a lab coat. Sobrero also tasted the chemicals he produced to see how harmful they were, and suffered side-effects. Experiments were not carried in controlled labs, but in homes, as a German scientist spilt some acid on a piece of clothing whilst he was completing an experiment. People who worked in factories were not properly cared for as they suffered from headaches and anaemia showing that they were given the correct equipment to protect them from the harmful effects of TNT. Nobel's brother was killed as a result of the experiments, so the further experiments needed to be carried out on a barge. This meant that if there was an accident then not many people would die from it and the damage would be limited. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Preparation of propanone from propan-2-ol

    5 star(s)

    Potassium dichromate (VI) was orange powder. 7. After adding 4g potassium dichromate to 10 cm3 of deionized water, the solution was orange in colour and there was undissolved potassium dichromate solid remained. 8. The addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to potassium dichromate solution was exothermic.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The purpose of this experiment is to compare ...

    5 star(s)

    This reagent is also prepared freshly in the laboratory. It is made initially as two separate solutions, known as Fehling's A and Fehling's B. Fehling's A is a blue aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate, while Fehling's B is a clear solution of aqueous potassium sodium tartrate and a strong alkali (commonly sodium hydroxide).

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Safety Precautions (9) 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution solid Corrosive Solid causes severe burns and is particularly dangerous to eyes. The solid gets hot when added to water Wear eye protection. Wear protective gloves. Avoid skin contact concentrated hydrochloric acid Corrosive Causes burns.

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    -- EG: HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) KCl (aq) + H2O (l) H+ (aq) + OH ? (aq) H2O (l) Hence, the proton is transferred to the hydroxide ion, forming water qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system -- Buffers are

  1. I am going to investigate the difference in enthalpy of combustion for a number ...

    42 20 287.45 286.93 0.52 22 42 20 287.01 286.51 0.5 22 42 20 286.46 286.06 0.4 21 41 20 286.04 285.54 0.5 21 42 21 285.50 284.93 0.57 21 41 20 284.9 284.39 0.51 Butan-1-ol 20 39 19 280.08 279.58 0.5 19 39 20 278.34 277.75 0.59 19 38

  2. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Making the Ascorbic Acid Solution: 1. Cut a sample of fruit with a knife into small pieces. 2. Grind the small pieces of fruit using a pestle and mortar, with the addition of 10.00ml of distilled water. 3. Pour this liquid into a 100ml beaker.

  1. Free essay

    Group II metals

    + H2O (l) MgO (s) + H2 (g) Ca (s) + H2O (l) CaO (s) + H2 (g) Ba (s) + H2O (l) BaO (s) + H2 (g) [3] Experiment 2: Reaction of the oxides with water and acid Metal oide Dissolved to give an alkaline solution Is HCl neutralised Colour pH MgO Not very dissolvable.

  2. Preparation of Propanone

    The resulting product is wet and may be treated with inert dehydrating agents (eg: anhydrous calcium chloride) and re-distillation for purification. The ketone could be tested with a melting point pointing point test after I has reacted with a hydrazine to form a hydrazone.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work