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Features of Lungs & Tissues

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I am going to compare different tissues with similarities, including what cells are in the tissues and where they are located and what organelles are within the cells, also to state their functions including explaining how each tissue is able to carry out their role. Firstly I will compare (Alveolus of lung/Bronchus of lung), secondly (Stomach/Urinary bladder). Alveolus of lung Bronchus of lung What cells are in the tissues? There are three types of cells within the tissue (Type I, Type II and Macrophages). * Type I (Squamous Alveolar) cells that form the structure of an alveolar wall * Type II (Great Alveolar) cells that secrete pulmonary surfactant to lower the surface tension of water and allow the membrane to separate, thereby increasing the capability to exchange gases. Surfactant is continuously released by exocytosis. It forms an underlying aqueous protein-containing hypophase and an overlying phospholipid film composed primarily of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. * Macrophages that destroy foreign material, such as bacteria. Where they are located? ...read more.


How they carry out their role? The bronchioles are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. They are branches of the bronchi, and are smaller than one millimeter in diameter. There are no glands or cartilage in any of the bronchioles, and the epithelial cells become more cuboidal in shape. The bronchioles terminate by entering the circular sacs called alveoli. Control of airflow resistance and air distribution in the lungs is controlled by the bronchioles. Stomach Urinary bladder What cells are in the tissues? The main cells found in stomach are: Parietal cells, G-cells and chief (zymogenic) cells. Where they are located? Parietal cells are located in the neck and fundus of gastric glands of the fundusbody region of the stomach. G cells are found deep within the gastric glands of the stomach antrum, and occasionally in the pancreas and the chief cells are located in the gastric pits of the stomach. Organelles within the cell? Organelles found within the cells are as follows: Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. ...read more.


Mitochondrion produces energy. Endoplasmic reticulum is for protein manufacturing. Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm maintains the shape of the cell. Microtubules are the intracellular support of the cytoskeleton and also help in transport of certain protein molecules. How they carry out their role? The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow muscular and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder is in the abdomen even when empty. ...read more.

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Response to the question

Response to the question is presented to a good level. Some scientific information is missed or inaccurate in places, but mostly the candidate is correct. Their response is clearly presented in graphs. To improve the candidate could include deeper scientific ...

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Response to the question

Response to the question is presented to a good level. Some scientific information is missed or inaccurate in places, but mostly the candidate is correct. Their response is clearly presented in graphs. To improve the candidate could include deeper scientific information about each of the tissues studied.

Level of analysis

The candidate states incorrectly that the bronchioles do not contain glands, when beforehand they stated that the bronchiole contains goblet cells, which are in fact a type of unicellular gland. The candidate does not clearly explain the function of surfactant in the lungs in relation to the anatomy, also it is the granular pneumonocytes which are the same as great alveolar cells and the candidate tries to distinguish these as two separate cell types. In the stomach the candidate misses out some cells such as the somatostatin producing cells. Also they wrongly refer to the fundus as the 'body' when in fact the body of the stomach is referred to as the corpus. The candidate could also have included more scientific information about the different cell types in the bladder.

Quality of writing

Sometimes the grammar is incorrect resulting in the sentences sounding too short. Spelling, grammar and punctuation apart from this seems accurate.

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Reviewed by skatealexia 12/04/2012

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