• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26

Fighter Pilot A Statistical Analysis of Reaction time and its Correlation with Dominant & Non-Dominant Hands

Extracts from this document...


Fighter Pilot A Statistical Analysis of Reaction time and its Correlation with Dominant & Non-Dominant Hands Introduction This experiment seeks to determine reaction times in two groups of matched subjects; dominant and non-dominant hands, using the ruler drop test. Reaction time experiments are performed to measure the alertness of the mind and will give an indication of the speed of the reflexes that different groups of varied individuals have. The experiment tests how long it takes the brain to translate visual information into the voluntary motor commands, actions which lead to a ruler being grabbed. The shorter the length at which the ruler is grabbed, the shorter time and therefore the faster the person's reaction. The controls of these processes within the human body are the responsibility of the nervous system which is the seat of voluntary and involuntary movements along with language, emotion and memory. (1) The experiment begins with an environmental stimulus via light reflected from a moving ruler being dropped from a height above the subject's hand. (1) This transmits into a sensory nervous impulse within the optic nerve. Beginning in the retina of the eye, information is detected by photoreceptors (rods and cones) they relay the visual signals on to bipolar cells which transmit on to ganglion cells. (2) The axons of all ganglion cells in the retina of each eye join to form the optic nerve. The information (an electrical transmission) is then passed through to the mid brain and the thalamus. (1) The information going to the midbrain does not reach conscious levels but rather produces pupillary reflexes (which are controlled by the autonomic nervous system) and eye movements. (1) In the thalamus, ganglion cell axons transmit signals to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, this visual association region recognizes the meaning of the visual impulses and the cortical cells then send messages to other "higher" cortical areas, associative centres of the brain, where the information is questioned and transformed into a response. ...read more.


(n=60). Each subject must first be screened to see if they are correct for the test. Procedure 1. Arrange with students union staff in Belfast Metropolitan College, College Square East, that an area will be free for use at a certain time during the day. 11am to approximately 1.30pm 2. Arrange for a quiet area to be reserved 3. Set up area with table, chair, ruler, instruction sheet, pen and record pages 4. Beginning with dominant hands start approaching random women and asking if they wish to participate 5. If answered Yes begin asking questions from questionnaire, if answer No return to point four 6. Participants must answer questions successfully according to the requirements of the controlled variables to take part in the test, answers recorded. 7. Upon finding a suitable subject bring them over to the prepared quiet area 8. Read to or allow participant to read instruction list 9. Make sure participant is sitting correctly, knees together, arm along the side of the table with hand positioned properly, thumb stretched out, use Appendix 4 as a reference 10. Hold ruler so that the very bottom of it is in line with the table top and is sitting very close to subjects finger and thumb 11. Remind participant to concentrate 12. Wait an appropriate amount of time, ranging between 5 and 10 seconds to try and catch the subject by surprise 13. Begin experiment by dropping ruler 14. Subject should catch the ruler 15. A measure of the dropping distance in centimetres should be recorded from just above the thumb 16. Repeat test two more times with this subject 17. Repeat point four to sixteen until 30 participants have done the test 18. Now repeat point four to seventeen but change to non-dominant hands, continue until 30 participants have done the test or within the time limit Risk assessment Safety is an important aspect in every experiment, even if the experiment seems to be very harmless. ...read more.


Also a range of different reaction time games should also be used to test the dominant and non dominant hands, games such as interactive games on the internet which involve clicking the mouse when a stimulus appears on screen, here are some examples: www.mathsisfun.com/games/reaction-time.html, www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/sheep/, http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/interactives/zap.html. Conclusion This investigation was set out to determine where there was a significant difference between reaction times of dominant handed subjects and non-dominant handed subjects of a total of 60 participants. The experiment was held over an afternoon and the results were recorded. Given the time constraints a number of the controlled variables were not followed accurately giving rise to possibly invalid results. From the initial results dominant hands proved to be the fastest: > Dominant hand sample mean = 0.265 seconds > Non-dominant hand sample mean = 0.272 seconds Using these results a number of calculations were carried out to test whether these means are a product of chance or whether dominant hands have a faster reaction time The 95% confidence limits for each sample were calculated and were found to be practically matching and gave an entire overlap between the two groups when plotted in a bar chart. The widths of the intervals were also rather large further providing evidence of the unreliability of the data; this is highly visible in the graph drawn. A statistical t-Test was calculated for further evidence of a significant difference and the calculation gave a probability value of p = 0.251 which is higher than that of 0.05, set at 5% significance, resulting in the alternative hypothesis being rejected. The evidence found in this experiment provided the necessary information which allowed for the experimental hypothesis to be rejected and the null hypothesis accepted: > Dominant hands and non-dominant hands have no difference when tested in reaction times. Further investigation may be needed to fully confirm that this is true of the entire population, to include a larger sample and stricter controlled variables. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

An extremely detailed and well though through account of the investigation. Background theory described using A level standard language and a clear awareness shown of the various factors which may affect reaction times. Results presented clearly and statistical analyses performed correctly.

5 Stars

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 25/10/2014

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast

    5 star(s)

    Colour of end point: this should be kept same for all the experiments as I will compare this to normal yeast as this become colourless from blue. Parameter: These are the volume and indicator I have chosen to use in the experiments of respiration of yeast.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of different sugars on respiration in yeast.

    5 star(s)

    temperature * Fill a plastic container 3/4 full with water * Place a beehive shelf in the plastic tub * Fill a burette with water (up to 50cm3) and whilst holding your finger over the end to avoid spilling water, place this inside the beehive shelf in the water.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

    4 star(s)

    Solar II will use the sunlight to change heat into mechanical energy in the turbine. The power plant will make enough electricity to power about 10,000 homes. Scientists say larger central tower power plants will be able to make electricity for 100,000 to 200,000 homes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Human Impact at Hastings Point Hastings Point is a small settlement on the ...

    3 star(s)

    Too much damage has already been done, and once the damage gets to a certain point it can't return to the way it was. No development in the area although it would not damage the area anymore, any sewage pipes that leak or any other infrastructure problems would not be

  1. What is the importance of Metabolic Pathways?

    From there, it can go several directions ending up as storage or as a source of energy. But what happens when there is no extra food entering the body? During the starvation state, glycogen stores are depleted so there is no carbohydrate source to synthesize glucose for the brain.

  2. Describe the concept of homeostasis and the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate heart rate, breathing ...

    The heart is controlled by the autonomic nervous system which has 2 branches one named sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. These 2 systems act like an accelerator and brake on the heart. When the body id undergoing fear, stress or is doing any type of muscular work then the sympathetic nervous system is active.

  1. What effect does substrate have on respiration in yeast?

    Therefore, the pH will remain fairly constant. During anaerobic respiration, carbon dioxide will be produced. This will reduce the pH of the yeast and the substrate mixture. So the buffer solution will be able to increase the pH back up to normal.

  2. Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate

    These neurones automatically maintain the rhythmic cycle of inspiration and expiration. These neurones can be controlled by higher brain functions and afferent information from the body. Afferent Supply 1. Central chemoreceptor ? these are a group of cells that respond to changes in pH.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work