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Find out how different temperatures affect how quick the enzyme amylase digests starch.

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Introduction

An investigation to find out how different temperatures affect how quick the enzyme amylase digests starch. Before carrying out any kind of investigation I am going to find out the facts in order to recreate the right conditions. Scientific Information Starch is a large molecule that is insoluble in water so cannot pass through into the blood, therefore to be of any use to the body it must be broken up into smaller molecules. Enzymes are used to carry out this process. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the reactions going on inside living organisms, there are many different enzymes each enzyme is specific to one kind of molecule and will only catalyse that reaction. The enzyme that we are going to use to break up the starch is amylase. Chemicals changed by enzyme-catalysed reactions are called the substrates of that enzyme, and they fit into the active site of the enzyme, where the reaction takes place, described in the lock-and-key theory. The products of the reaction then leave the active site, freeing it up for more similar reactions to take place. Kinetic theory is the idea that, when a substance is heated, its molecules, having been supplied with energy, move around faster. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore I shall shorten the gap between taking samples to 30 seconds, hopefully giving sufficient examples of the colour change. Full Investigation Apparatus * 10cm3 of Starch solution * 2cm3 of Amylase * 2 Test tubes * Test tube rack * Test tube holder * Stop watch * Beaker * 125cm3 of water * Iodine * Spotting tiles * Pipette * 2 Syringes * Benedict Solution * Thermometer * Goggles * Ice * Bunsen burner * Tripod * Heating Mat * Splint Plan * Collect apparatus on list and set up as in diagram. * Light the Bunsen burner and heat up the water until it reaches the required temperature. * While the temperature is rising use a syringe to collect the starch and amylase. * Add two drops of Iodine to each well of the spotting tile. * When 40 degrees is reached shut off the Bunsen burner. * Add the starch to the amylase and start a stopwatch at the very same time. * Every 30 seconds add a drop or two of the solution to the Iodine in the spotting tile, using a pipette. * Between each sample is taken, wash out the pipette to avoid contamination. ...read more.

Conclusion

960 980 Yes 30 degrees C 450 510 510 490 Yes Body temp 270 240 300 270 Yes 50 degrees C 480 510 480 490 Yes 60 degrees C 900 930 870 900 Yes 70 degrees C 1080 1110 1080 1090 Yes 80 degrees C 1440 1440 1440 1440 No Graph Conclusion The results I have collected from my investigation backs up the prediction I made earlier. The optimum temperature for enzyme to work the most efficiently is 40 degrees C which is about body temperature, and that the further away you get from this temperature the longer the reaction takes until eventually the enzyme is unable to function properly at all. Evaluation The experiment worked well overall proving that optimum temperature for amylase is body temperature, round 40 degrees C. Ultimately the results turned out pretty well showing that 40 degrees is definitely the most efficient temperature as the starch is broken down the quickest. I found one area that could be improved on but would not really be very cost-efficient. There would still be some solution left in the pipette even though I tried to wash it out to solve this I could have used a new pipette each time, but once again its not very cost- efficient. ...read more.

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