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Find out if the concentration of hydrochloric acid will increase the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Aim: I am trying to find out if the concentration oh hydrochloric acid will increase the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Prediction: I suspect that the stronger the hydrochloric acid I use, the faster the reaction will be, more gas will be given off and more collision between particles will take place. I also think that as I dilute the acid the rate of reaction will decrease, less collision between particles will take place and as a result, less gas will be given off. I believe this because the higher the concentration of the acid, the more ions there will be. Therefore more collision between the calcium carbonate (marble chips) and the hydrochloric acid will take place. The acid particles will collide with the marble chippings causing the reaction to take place faster. If you further double the strength of the acid you will double the amount of ions. This will then double the speed of the reaction. Each time you increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the speed increases in direct proportions. Plan: I intend to carry out the experiment using the apparatus illustrated below: I chose this apparatus as I found it gave the most accurate reading as opposed to the gas collection kit. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus: * Bung * Conical flask * Retort stand * Clamp * Gas syringe * Calcium carbonate (marble chips) * Hydrochloric acid * Stop Clock Results: * First Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) 2 molar acid 1.5 molar acid 1 molar acid 0.5 molar acid 0 seconds 0 0 0 0 10 seconds 65 63 18 17 20 seconds 84 95 35 25 30 seconds 94 115 50 29 40 seconds 114 135 64 32 50 seconds 133 142 75 39 60 seconds 152 165 85 40 70 seconds 171 190 95 42 80 seconds 190 200 105 49 90 seconds 209 210 113 - * Second Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) 2 molar acid 1.5 molar acid 1 molar acid 0.5 molar acid 0 seconds 0 0 0 0. 10 seconds 63 45 33 32 20 seconds 87 65 47 46 30 seconds 100 80 50 50 40 seconds 117 93 63 60 50 seconds 130 105 70 63 60 seconds 142 111 75 65 70 seconds 154 118 79 66 80 seconds 460 124 82 69 90 seconds 175 127 85 72 * Third Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

When the concentration of acid was doubled, as was the acid particles, this meant that there were more acid particles and that meant more collision took place Error and improvement: My results were inconsistent throughout all three experiments. One result could be 100 cm� And the next one could be 150cm�. E.g. Volume of gas given off (cm�) 2 molar 1.5 molar 1 molar 0.5 molar Experiment 1 After 50 seconds 133 142 75 39 Experiment 2 After 50 seconds 130 105 70 63 Experiment 3 After 50 seconds 130 110 70 45 In some cases in my investigation my results were very inconsistent. One way that I could improve my results would be to use a better gas syringe; I think that after many uses they would begin to stick, which could manipulate the results. Another improvement I would make would be to carry out all three experiments in the same day using the very same bottle of acid. I think that using different bottles of acid, although they are marked as the same strength, could be slightly more concentrated than other ones as they are mixed in school, this would affect the results. Craig Lamont ...read more.

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