• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Find out if the concentration of hydrochloric acid will increase the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...


Aim: I am trying to find out if the concentration oh hydrochloric acid will increase the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Prediction: I suspect that the stronger the hydrochloric acid I use, the faster the reaction will be, more gas will be given off and more collision between particles will take place. I also think that as I dilute the acid the rate of reaction will decrease, less collision between particles will take place and as a result, less gas will be given off. I believe this because the higher the concentration of the acid, the more ions there will be. Therefore more collision between the calcium carbonate (marble chips) and the hydrochloric acid will take place. The acid particles will collide with the marble chippings causing the reaction to take place faster. If you further double the strength of the acid you will double the amount of ions. This will then double the speed of the reaction. Each time you increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the speed increases in direct proportions. Plan: I intend to carry out the experiment using the apparatus illustrated below: I chose this apparatus as I found it gave the most accurate reading as opposed to the gas collection kit. ...read more.


Apparatus: * Bung * Conical flask * Retort stand * Clamp * Gas syringe * Calcium carbonate (marble chips) * Hydrochloric acid * Stop Clock Results: * First Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) 2 molar acid 1.5 molar acid 1 molar acid 0.5 molar acid 0 seconds 0 0 0 0 10 seconds 65 63 18 17 20 seconds 84 95 35 25 30 seconds 94 115 50 29 40 seconds 114 135 64 32 50 seconds 133 142 75 39 60 seconds 152 165 85 40 70 seconds 171 190 95 42 80 seconds 190 200 105 49 90 seconds 209 210 113 - * Second Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) 2 molar acid 1.5 molar acid 1 molar acid 0.5 molar acid 0 seconds 0 0 0 0. 10 seconds 63 45 33 32 20 seconds 87 65 47 46 30 seconds 100 80 50 50 40 seconds 117 93 63 60 50 seconds 130 105 70 63 60 seconds 142 111 75 65 70 seconds 154 118 79 66 80 seconds 460 124 82 69 90 seconds 175 127 85 72 * Third Experiment Gas given off by (25cm�) ...read more.


When the concentration of acid was doubled, as was the acid particles, this meant that there were more acid particles and that meant more collision took place Error and improvement: My results were inconsistent throughout all three experiments. One result could be 100 cm� And the next one could be 150cm�. E.g. Volume of gas given off (cm�) 2 molar 1.5 molar 1 molar 0.5 molar Experiment 1 After 50 seconds 133 142 75 39 Experiment 2 After 50 seconds 130 105 70 63 Experiment 3 After 50 seconds 130 110 70 45 In some cases in my investigation my results were very inconsistent. One way that I could improve my results would be to use a better gas syringe; I think that after many uses they would begin to stick, which could manipulate the results. Another improvement I would make would be to carry out all three experiments in the same day using the very same bottle of acid. I think that using different bottles of acid, although they are marked as the same strength, could be slightly more concentrated than other ones as they are mixed in school, this would affect the results. Craig Lamont ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Stereochemistry of Butenedioic acid

    5 star(s)

    react to form the butenedioic anhydride (maleic anhydride) at about 140. Although trans-butenedioic acid has two carboxyl groups, there was insufficient energy to overcome the barrier of rotation about the C=C double bond in the same temperature. (Q4, 5) As the melting point of the product in part B is 255, thereochemistry of the acid is meso-2,3-dibromosuccinic acid.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    =(27.174 +30.685)/2 =-29.080kJ mol-1 3. Draw an energy-cycle linking Equations 1, 2 and 3 together, you must include reactions that had not been performed in the experiment. 2H+(aq.) +Ca(s) + C(s) + 3/2 O2(g) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq.) ?Hx ?Hy Ca2+(aq.) + H2(g) + C(s) + 3/2 O2(g) Ca2+(aq.) + CO2(g)

  1. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    This is how I will conduct the experiment. I will set up the apparatus as shown below. I will pour in the Hydrochloric acid and get someone else to start the stopwatch for me, next I will measure the volume of Co2 produced at intervals of one minute until ten minutes have passed.

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    If the reaction is found to be xth order with respect to A and yth order with respect to y, then: (Equation 1.5.3) The rate equation can be derived from this: (Equation 1.5.4) where k is the rate constant for the reaction.

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    Kinetic energy is given by the formula: The kinetic energy of a point object is proportional to its absolute temperature: Mass will be constant within a particular species, meaning that the kinetic energy is only dependent on the velocity at which the particles are moving.

  2. Electrochemistry - Inventing Better Batteries

    Voltage (V) Trial ZnSO4 0.1M Avg % Dif ZnSO4 0.5M Avg % Dif ZnSO4 1M Avg % Dif CuSO4 0.1M 0.98 0.95 0.99 0.97 - 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.97 0 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.96 -1.03 CuSO4 0.5M 1.05 1.02 1.04 1.04 7.22 - - - - - - - -

  1. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    Activation Enthalpy: (1, pg 224/225) The Activation Enthalpy is described as the minimum amount of kinetic energy needed before a collision will occur between two molecules. This energy is needed for bonds in the reactants to be broken and new bonds in the products to be formed.

  2. Individual investigation - Reaction to be studied Rate of reaction between propanone and ...

    DILUTION: > Use a grading pipette; take the volume of the known concentration of the solution into the volumetric flask. > Add distilled water to volumetric flask below the calibration mark and add last few drops of distilled water with the help of dropper pipette to make sure the bottom of the meniscus is by at the calibration mark.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work