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# Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

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Introduction

Plan: Finding out how much acid there is in a solution [Oliver White] Theory During the extraction of a metal from its ore, sulphur dioxide is often produced. This can be converted to sulphuric (IV) acid and sold as a useful by-product. With a given sample of the acid solution, with concentration thought to be between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm-3, I am asked to accurately find its concentration. I am provided with solid anhydrous sodium carbonate and the indicators; methyl orange and phenolphthalein. Screened methyl orange is also available for people who are colour blind and have difficulties noticing colour changes when using the methyl orange. The choice for my experiment is only between methyl orange and phenolphthalein as I have no trouble using the methyl orange. To help choose which indicator would be most suitable we are given details about the solubility of indicators for different types of titration; Strong Acid Weak Acid Hydrochloric acid Ethanoic acid Nitric acid Ethanedioic acid Sulphuric acid Strong Alkali Weak Alkali Sodium hydroxide Ammonia solution Potassium hydroxide Sodium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Sodium hydrogencarbonate For a titration between a strong acid and a weak alkali, methyl orange is used as the indicator. ...read more.

Middle

= 12 3 x O (16) = 48 = 106 Now I want to make a 250cm3 solution at 0.1 mol. Having worked out the relative molecular mass of sodium carbonate I know that I need 106g of Na2CO3 to make one mole of solution in 1dm3. But as I only want 0.1 mol dm-3 I would only need 10.6g. Even now this is too much Na2CO3 as we are using 0.25dm3(250cm3) not 1dm3(1000cm3) so finally we need to divide 10.6 by 4 to give us 2.65g of Na2CO3 which is correct for 250cm3. Apparatus: -Stand -Clamp -Pipette -Pipette Filler -Burette -Volumetric Flask -Digital Balance -Wash Bottle -Glass Rod -Beaker -Conical Flask -White Tile Diagram of apparatus and lay-out of results table Figure 1: diagram of apparatus and table for results Method To begin with I will weigh out as accurately as I can 2.65g of anhydrous sodium carbonate into a weighing bottle and will then transfer this into a large beaker to make the solution. I will rinse the remains in weighing the bottle into the beaker so I ensure all the sodium carbonate gets transferred. ...read more.

Conclusion

The titration must be stopped as soon as the methyl orange turns a pink/peachy colour. The titration must be repeated until you achieve concordant results within 0.1cm3 of each other. Safety Precautions Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate; Is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory system and the dust must not be breathed in. In case of contact with eyes, they must be rinsed immediately with plenty of water and medical advice must be sought. Exposure to the dust must be minimized.1 Sulphuric Acid; Extremely corrosive and causes serious burns. It is highly toxic and harmful by inhalation, ingestion and through skin contact. Ingestion may be fatal. Skin contact can lead to extensive and severe burns. Chronic exposure may result in lung damage and possibly cancer. Safety glasses or a face mask must be worn. Acid resistant gloves should be worn and there must be suitable ventilation because the vapour mustn't be inhaled.2 You must be stood up and the safety goggles must be kept on at all times during the experiment. Long hair must be tied back. Spillages must be cleaned up immediately and broken glass must be safely disposed of in the 'broken glass' waste bin. ...read more.

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