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Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

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Introduction

Finding out how much acid there is in a solution? Plan: In this experiment, I will be trying to find out the concentration of a solution of sulphuric acid, in the chemical reaction of sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid. I will be able to determine the concentration of sulphuric acid, by using a method called titration, which involves an alkali. I will need to prepare a solution of a base (sodium carbonate solution). The alkali helps to determine how much acid was necessary to neutralise the alkali. This would help to calculate the concentration of the acid. The formula for this chemical reaction is: Na2 CO3 (aq) + H2SO4 Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) The strength/weakness of the acid and alkali affects the neutralisation of the reaction. Ph is considered here. PH is the measurement of how much H+ ions and OH- ion a substance contains. The more positively charged hydrogen ions there are, the more acidic it is. If there is more negatively charged hydroxide ions present, it is more of an alkaline. H + + OH - H2O Acid Vs Bases/Weakness and Strengths: The strength of an acid depends on the amount of it, which has reacted with water to produce ions. The concentration defines how much of the initial acid is dissolved in the solution. When an acid reacts with water, a hydrogen ion is transferred to a water molecule. This produces a hydroxonium ion and a negative ion: The sign in the middle shows that it is a reversible reaction. Some ions give away hydrogen ions very easily and quickly (this is what gives strong acids their property), they are said to be virtually 100% ionized. This is known as conjugate acid-base pair. e.g. sulphuric acid is a very strong acid. It is produced by dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. Sulphuric acid is fully dissociated. All the displaceable hydrogen in the acid is present in solution as the positive charged hydrogen ion. H2SO4 ==> H (+) ...read more.

Middle

250 ml of this solution will be made, with the concentration 0.10 mol dm��. 2.65 g of sodium carbonate will need to be used. The calculations below state how I calculated the mass (2.65g) needed for this experiment. The mass of the anhydrous sodium carbonate must be specific, and needs to be 2.65g. I used a weighing scale to be accurate, to two decimal places. Here are the calculations showing the mass of sodium carbonate required to produce a solution of concentration 0.10 mol dm��: Aim: Make a standard solution of sodium carbonate (aqueous), with the volume of 250 ml, and the concentration 0.10 mol dm�� 1 mole of sodium carbonate has a relative molecular mass of: (23 x 2) + (12) + (16 x 3) = 106g We want to obtain 0.1 mol dm�� of sodium carbonate, therefore: 106 x 0.1 = 10.6g This means 0.1 mol dm�� of Na2 CO3 is dissolved to make one litre of the solution. We need 250 ml, and so the next step is taken place: 10.6/4 = 2.65g (10.6g is divided by 4 because, one litre contains 4 times 250 ml. Therefore, you divide it by 4) 2.65g is needed to make 250 ml of Na2 CO3 with the concentration 0.1 mol dm��. I will use a weighing scale to measure the weight of sodium carbonate. I will be putting it to 2 decimal places because, burette readings can show upto 2 decimal places. Therefore, all of my readings will be 2 decimal places. The weighing scale and burette readings can only be read through 2 decimal places, and not more than that, so therefore I cannot be any more specific with the results. Also, I cannot write long reoccurring numbers because, it will be too complicating and will not help when I am analyzing my results. Risk Assessment: Sulphuric Acid: Risk Assessment Sulphuric Acid is Corrosive and very dangerous to the skin. ...read more.

Conclusion

1 pippette filler is required because it will be used once every time I use it. I will only be using it to draw the up same solution, so therefore the same pippette filler is used. * 1 Funnel A funnel is needed to help me get the sulphuric acid into the burette. It is placed on top of the burette, and because the burette has a narrow top end, where it is hard to get the acid in, therefore that is why we use a funnel. Only one is required, because I shall only use it for this job and will use it with the same solution. I will not need to use various funnels at the same time. * 1 Conical Flask 1 conical flask is required because this will store sodium carbonate solution only, and nothing else. This will hold the solution in place, and the conical flask is only required for this job. * 1 Pipette The pipette will help to draw up small amount of solution, which can alter the volume slightly. It will help me to draw up the indicator methyl orange into the conical flask. Only 3 drops is required, and the pipette will help to do this. This is the only reason why this is used, and therefore, that is why only one pipette is needed. This helps to get accurate results and reliable result. * 1 white tile 1 white tile is required so the colour change can be seen clearly, during neutralization. It gives a clear surface to observe the colour change. This helps to obtain accurate and reliable results. * 1 Clamp Stand 1 clamp stand is required to hold the burette up in place. Only one clamp is required because only one burette is needed to be held up. ALL EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE WASHED BEFORE HAND WITH THE SOLUTION THAT WILL GO ON, TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION. This will help to produce reliable data. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 10 ...read more.

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This report starts off very well, detailing factors which need to be taken into account to find the acidity of a solution. However, it lacks a step by step method, making it difficult for someone else to perform the experiment.

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 14/07/2012

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