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Forensic science covers the areas of science that are relevant to the law.

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Introduction

Forensic science covers the areas of science that are relevant to the law. It is primarily involved in gathering scientific evidence proving that a crime has occured, and who has commited it. This evidence is acquired by using certain areas of biology, chemistry, analytical science and mathematics. Every single cell in our bodies contains DNA. 99.9% of human DNA is the same in everyone, meaning only 0.1% of our DNA is unique. This unique DNA is accounted for in the base pairs, this is more than enough to identify an individual. With the obvious exceptions of identical twins, whose DNA is 100% identical. Though all people, except identical twins, have different base pairs in their DNA, blood relatives also have similar DNA, than unrelated people. If the DNA profile from the evidence and a suspect are similar but not identical, then the relatives may be investigated further. In criminal cases, DNA fingerprinting generally involves obtaining samples from crime-scene evidence and a suspect, extracting the DNA, and analyzing it for the presence of a set of specific markers. ...read more.

Middle

Where as Paternity and Maternity identification is used alot more often. Because a person inherits his or her DNA from their parents, then the patterns can be used to establish parentage. The patterns are so specific that a parental pattern can be reconstructed even if only the childrens patterns are known. Obviously, the more children produced, the more reliable the reconstruction. Like nearly everything else, nothing about DNA fingerprinting is 100% assured. Generating a high probability of a DNA fingerprint belonging to a specific person needs to be reasonably high - especially in criminal cases.There will also be problems with determining the probability of a DNA fingerprint. This is because of genetic inheritance, the DNA patterns are not distributed across all of the population. Therefore any given DNA pattern cannot have a stable probability of occuring. There will also be alot of technical difficulties throughout the analyzing process. Most people will agree that an innocent person should not be sent to jail, a guilty person walk free, or a biological mother denied custody of her children, just beacuse a lab technician did not conduct an experiment accuratley. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another example is the son of Louis XVI and Marie Antionette. In 2000, scientists cracked one of the great mysteries of European history by using DNA tests to prove that the son of executed French King Louis XVIdied in prison as a child. There was many a controversy to determine whether the child died in prison or whether he managed to escape the French Revolution. In 1999, the heart of the child king was removed to enable scientists to compare his genetic make-up to that of living and dead relatives. It is easier to exclude a suspect through DNA fingerprinting. Forensic DNA is just one of many types of evidence. It is important to examine other clues such as motive, weapon, or additional evidence linking the suspect to the crime scene. DNA profiling is a huge help in solving crimes. It is also very successful just so long as there is proper handling of evidence and careful analysis. When used correctly, DNA fingerprinting, can eliminate a suspect, provide good supporting evidence and most importantly reduce the chances of a wrongful conviction. http://protist.biology.washington.edu/fingerprint/dnaintro.html http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/features/forensics http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml ...read more.

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