• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27

Fundamental human anatomy and physiology.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Fundamental of Atomy and Physiology Unit 5 Assignment 1 Task 1(P1) Cell Structure and Function Introduction A human body is made up of lots of tiny cells that you can only see under the microscope however this topic will tell you about the individual structure and the function of the cells and the organs within the body. The Eukaryote Cell Reference: http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Microtextbook/images/book_4/chapter_2/2-70.gif Viewed on 25/ 2 / 2008 Cell Membrane Every cell in the human body is covered by a cell membrane this is a double layer of phospholipids molecules therefore the protein within the cell membrane provides structural support to form a channel for the passage of the materials that acts as a receptor site and functions as a carrier molecule to provide identification maker. The function of the cell membrane is to separates the materials outside from the inside the cell this is to produce an integrity of the cell and to control passage of the materials in and out of the cell itself. Reference: http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit2_1_cell_functions_1.html# Viewed on 25/ 2/ 2008 Nucleus and Nucleolus The nucleus controls the centre of the cell there fore the thread of the chromatin in the nucleus contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which makes the genetic materials of the cell. The nucleolus is a solid area of RNA (ribonucleic acid) which is stored in the nucleus and is the spot of the ribosome structure therefore the nucleus decide on how the cell will function as well as the basic structure of that cell. Reference: http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit2_1_cell_functions_1.html# Viewed on 25/ 2/ 2008 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a gel like fluid inside the cell, this is average for chemical reaction this provides a platform so then the other organelles can function properly within the cells. The cell carries out all the functions of expansion, growth, and replication within the cytoplasm therefore the materials within the cytoplasm moves by diffusion this is a physical process that can only work for a short distance and period of time. ...read more.

Middle

Reference: http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Topics/Respiratory_System.htm http://www.brianmac.co.uk/physiolr.htm Website viewed on 20/5/08 Digestive System Digestive system includes the stomach, liver, pancreas, duodenum, ileum and colon. What is a Digestive system? Digestion is a breakdown and transportation of the solid and liquid food into microscopic substances therefore theses substances are then transported into different areas of the body The digestive system is a set of organs which transforms whatever we eat into substances that can be used in the body for energy, growth and repair. Once the food has been broken down by the various chemical processes, and nutrients removed, the rest is excreted as waste. The whole process involves many different organs and sometimes takes several hours. There are four stages of digestion:- * Mouth: ingestion (taking in of food or liquid into the body), chewing and swallowing this is the starch of digestion. * Stomach: mixing and protein digestion * Small Intestines: carbohydrates and fat digestion abortion * Large intestine: waste and excretion Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_system Website viewed on 28 / 5 / 08 Reference: http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit10_3_dige_regions.html Class notes hand out 26 / 2 / 2008 Web sight viewed on 27 / 2 2008 Where Does Digestion Start? The digestion starts within the mouth where the action of the teeth and saliva combined in the first stage of breakdown which is chewing and partially digesting the food so that it can pass threw more easily along the oesophagus therefore the ball of the food that leaves the mouth is known as bolus. Saliva * The salvia is a liquid secreted by three pairs of * The parotid gland placed below the ear * The submandibular gland and the sublingual gland both of these are placed below the tongue. * It contains water, mucus and enzyme salivary amylase. The Three Functions of the Saliva * To lubricate the food with mucus, making it easier to swallow * To start digestion: it contains the enzymes salivary amylase, these acts on cooked starch turning it into shorter polysaccharides. ...read more.

Conclusion

As soon as the interstitial fluid enters the lymph capillaries, it is called lymph. Returning the fluid to the blood prevents edema and helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure. Reference: http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit8_2_lymph_compo.html Class notes handout 26 / 2 / 2008 Web sight viewed on 27 / 2 / 2008 Musculo - Skeleton System A musclo- skeleton system is a bone of the skeleton and their attached striated muscles from this system. The function of the musculo skeleton system is effects movement with the nervous system and stores calcium to protect and support vital organs to produce many blood cells. The skeleton is a hard framework of 206 bones that support and protect the muscles and organs of the human body this is divided into two parts. The axial skeleton: this supports the head, neck and the trunk this is also known as a torso this consists of skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum/ The appendicle skeleton supports the appendages or limb and attaches them to the rest of the body it consists of the shoulder girdle, the upper limb the pelvic girdle and the lower limb. Reference: http://dspace.mit.edu/html/1721.1/34966/3-051JSpring2004/NR/rdonlyres/91F88A47-AAD8-49A6-897E-AFC44A49EB98/0/chp_biomaterials.jpg Class notes handout 26 / 2 / 2008 Web sight viewed on 27 / 2 2008 Immune System The immune system is more scattered then the other system. The function of the immune system is to defend against invasion by microorganisms, anti cancer role and reject any materials perceived as foreign. The immune system is also part of our general body defenses against disease. It functions by recognizing viruses and bacteria and converting that information into hormones that activate the immune process. This response can be both specific, where the body responds only to certain agents and no others as well as nonspecific, where the body works to defend itself any harmful agent that enters the body. Reference: http://www.activamune.com/immune_system.PNG Class notes handouts 26 / 2 / 2008 Web sight viewed on 27 / 2 / 2008 STOMACH WALL ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology coursework planning - the effect of lead chloride on the growth of cress ...

    5 star(s)

    The same amount will be used in each petri dish to make it a fair test. Otherwise, inaccurate outcomes of the experiment will result. * The cress seeds will be left to grow for 7 days because the tests done for the preliminary work resulted in measurable lengths of shoots.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Pubic symphysis The pubic symphysis is a cartilaginous joint that joins the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones at the front of the pelvis. It is located at the back of the urinary bladder and above the external genitalia.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reproduction, Gamete formation and fertilisation

    4 star(s)

    Once there, they have to make their way up through the cervix and uterus, and into one of the oviducts. Once the sperm are in the oviduct fertilisation may occur. * The sperm swim towards the egg cell in the oviduct.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Cell Membrane

    3 star(s)

    Beetroot also contains large amounts of betacyanin, a red pigment, situated in the large internal membrane vacuoles. At 60 degrees Celsius, when the membrane structure is disrupted, the pigment can cross the vacuole membrane and cell membrane and leaks out into the surrounding environment.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    There are different types of oral medication for treating Type 2 diabetes. Some increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, others increase the action of insulin in the body, while others delay the absorption of glucose. The treatment of diabetes is based on individual needs.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Effect of Caffeine on the Heart Rate of Daphnia

    3 star(s)

    is one of the factors that affects the heart rate of it. Prolong exposure of the Daphnia to the microscope light will overheat the Daphnia. To prevent the Daphnia (water flea) from overheating, the microscope light should be turned off between observations and a heat sink should be used.

  1. The Skeletal and Muscular System

    Acromegaly. A condition caused by an excess in production of growth hormone after the bone growth plate has closed. It causes abnormal enlargement of bones and tissues, most commonly in the limbs, it occurs gradually over numerous years. d.

  2. Describe the structure and purpose of the lymphatic system .

    The lymphatic system contains lymph. These lymph?s originate in the body as plasma. Organ Function Structure Lymph nodes Lymph nodes play a very important role as they serve as tiny fibres where the lymphocytes attack substances that pass through the tiny spaces between the cells.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work