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Gene Cloning.

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Introduction

Gene Cloning Gene Cloning is the process whereby a single gene can be isolated from among all the different genes in the organism thereby allowing its characterization. This is usually achieved by preparing a library of bacteria that contains all the different genes in an organism with each individual bacterium containing one of the genes. This is done by simply cutting up an individual's DNA. Alternatively, a library of all the DNA sequences expressed in a particular cell can be created by making complementary DNA copies. In either case, the DNA fragments are linked to a vector-either a bacterial virus known as a bacteriophage or a circular DNA known as a plasmid-that is then introduced into bacteria so that each individual bacteria takes only one copy of the vector and therefore receives only one DNA fragment. Libraries prepared in this way can be screened to identify the individual bacteria containing the gene of interest. ...read more.

Middle

The word has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics-that is, in their genes-except for any differences caused by mutation. Identical twins, for example, who originate by the division of a single fertilized egg, are members of a clone; whereas non-identical twins, who derive from two separate fertilized eggs, are not. Besides the organisms known as prokaryotes), a number of other simple organisms such as most protozoans, many other algae, and some yeasts also reproduce by cloning, as do certain higher organisms, for example, flatworms and plants such as the dandelion. Through recent advances of genetic engineering, scientists can isolate an individual gene from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different species. The species chosen as a recipient is usually one that can reproduce asexually, such as a bacterium or yeast. ...read more.

Conclusion

The division of the egg brings about the division of the nucleus, and the descendant nuclei can, in their turn, be injected into eggs. After several such transfers, the nuclei may become capable of directing the development of the eggs into complete organisms genetically identical to the organism from which the original nucleus was taken. This cloning technique is thus, in theory, capable of producing large numbers of genetically identical individuals. Such experiments have been successfully carried out with frogs, mice, and sheep. This technique is known as the "nuclear transfer from cultured cells". In 1997 the sheep clone named Dolly was created using the DNA from an udder cell of an adult ewe. The DNA was fused with unfertilized egg cells, from which the original chromosomes had been removed. The fused cell developed into an early embryo and was implanted into a surrogate mother. With developments in animal cloning proceeding, there is now international concern that the private ownership of human genes should be outlawed in order to control and protect the human genetic blueprint. ...read more.

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