• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic Screening using CF as an example.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Yathavan Premadasan ? AS Biology Genetic Screening using CF as an example Word Count: 1497 Genetic screening is a very useful medical technique used to identify abnormal changes in chromosomes, genes or proteins. Genetic screening is used in several tests with more than 1000 available tests today, and more are being developed. (1) The outcomes of a genetic screening test can be used to identify a person?s chance of obtaining a genetic disease or passing on an inherited disease such as cystic fibrosis or help people make family decisions such as having children, having an abortion or even marriage. There are several types of genetic screening methods used today; some are carried out when making family decisions such as identification of carriers whilst others are used prior to birth during pregnancy such as prenatal screening or even some that are done before pregnancy such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Genetic screening is being increasingly used in adults with cystic fibrosis as an approach to make certain that families do not pass on the disease by letting families be able to make informed decisions about having children if they are carriers of the disease. ...read more.

Middle

Besides these disadvantages, there are many advantages for example, if a baby is found to possess cystic fibrosis then planning can be taken to help the child from day one of birth. Additionally, as an ultrasound is used during the screening process, the process can also be used to check on the ?general well being of a baby? and its gender can be accurately identified in the process. (3) The other method of prenatal genetic screening is called chorionic villus testing, which essentially is the same process to amniocentesis with both tests used for the same purpose ? to identify the presence of faulty CFTR genes. In this process, a sample of embryonic tissue is taken from the developing placenta using a catheter (tubes used to drain body fluids) as shown in image B. (4) By doing so, this creates a very large sample of fetal tissue available for testing. The placental cells contain the same genetic material as the cells of the developing baby. CVS is usually carried out earlier than amniocentesis - between the beginning of the 11th and the end of the 13th week of pregnancy. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are opportunities for False-positive and False-negative results being obtained; in a false-positive situation a fetus that has been identified positive of cystic fibrosis will actually be healthy and not have the disease at all, this therefore suggests if the couple decide to have this fetus aborted, they are actually aborting a perfectly healthy child and thus this is an issue couples have to consider and decide whether or not to take the risk of an abortion. In a false-negative result the test would indicate that the unborn child is free of cystic fibrosis however in reality the child will be born with cystic fibrosis and this could harm the couple?s relationship or affect the couple?s health mentally as they now have to look after a diseased child with cystic fibrosis. However, the chance of obtaining false results is extremely low and very rare. The risks mentioned above have to be considered against all the benefits that these screening tests can bring to a newly born child such as immediate treatment and the benefits to a couple?s relationship as informed decisions can be made as using the results. In most cases, the test results are very accurate and consequently the benefits can outweigh the risks. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    and may become annoyed easily; these are all common characteristics of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, during your manic phase, you may feel very creative and view mania as a positive experience. However, during the manic phase of bipolar disorder, you may also have symptoms of psychosis (this is where you see or hear things that are not here).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Nature vs. Nurture - And its affect on intelligence, personality, and behavior

    4 star(s)

    This new technology is an example of nurture. The environment can also, in this case, be referred to as the society. The society, then, portrays an image of beauty that people try to match. By doing so, people's confidence rises, and therefore they are able to interact better with others.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    Local education authorities have a duty to deliver the support outlined in a statement of Special Educational Needs (SEN). However, 31% of all autistic children and 40% of autistic children in mainstream schools do not receive all the support

  2. case study- cystic fibrosis

    Lots of religious believers feel that cloning is wrong because scientists are "playing god".Many people believe that the giving and taking of life is only to be judged by God and that only he should make it happen. Cloning Pictures and Diagrams: This diagram shows us how therapeutic cloning is

  1. Parkinsons Disease

    Amino acids require a 'transporter' to transfer them across the membrane of the intestines and into the blood stream. These transporters can only work at a certain rate and so diet is important. To much dietary protein can slow the transport of levodopa into the blood stream meaning the dose may be ineffective.

  2. Cystic Fibrosis

    Many years ago, New York4 had a heat wave, and the hospitals became overwhelmed with dehydrated CF children. These children became dehydrated much quicker than children without the disorder. Thus eventually resulting in the formation of the sweat test which is now the standard test.

  1. Investigation as to whether the aspect of a wall affects the growth of lichens

    the directional hypothesis should state that more lichen growth would occur on the northern aspect. The Man-Whitney U test was carried out to determine whether any significant difference existed. The critical value for the Man-Whitney U test was 127. This value was more than the lower value of U or

  2. The purpose of this experiment is to identify plant pigments by separation, using thin ...

    However, companies need to know which plant would be best to grow, and they have turned to me to investigate some possibilities. I will see which plant has the most pigments, and can absorb the most light energy so if it grows bigger or faster to a better biomass fuel option.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work