• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic Screening using CF as an example.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Yathavan Premadasan ? AS Biology Genetic Screening using CF as an example Word Count: 1497 Genetic screening is a very useful medical technique used to identify abnormal changes in chromosomes, genes or proteins. Genetic screening is used in several tests with more than 1000 available tests today, and more are being developed. (1) The outcomes of a genetic screening test can be used to identify a person?s chance of obtaining a genetic disease or passing on an inherited disease such as cystic fibrosis or help people make family decisions such as having children, having an abortion or even marriage. There are several types of genetic screening methods used today; some are carried out when making family decisions such as identification of carriers whilst others are used prior to birth during pregnancy such as prenatal screening or even some that are done before pregnancy such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Genetic screening is being increasingly used in adults with cystic fibrosis as an approach to make certain that families do not pass on the disease by letting families be able to make informed decisions about having children if they are carriers of the disease. ...read more.

Middle

Besides these disadvantages, there are many advantages for example, if a baby is found to possess cystic fibrosis then planning can be taken to help the child from day one of birth. Additionally, as an ultrasound is used during the screening process, the process can also be used to check on the ?general well being of a baby? and its gender can be accurately identified in the process. (3) The other method of prenatal genetic screening is called chorionic villus testing, which essentially is the same process to amniocentesis with both tests used for the same purpose ? to identify the presence of faulty CFTR genes. In this process, a sample of embryonic tissue is taken from the developing placenta using a catheter (tubes used to drain body fluids) as shown in image B. (4) By doing so, this creates a very large sample of fetal tissue available for testing. The placental cells contain the same genetic material as the cells of the developing baby. CVS is usually carried out earlier than amniocentesis - between the beginning of the 11th and the end of the 13th week of pregnancy. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are opportunities for False-positive and False-negative results being obtained; in a false-positive situation a fetus that has been identified positive of cystic fibrosis will actually be healthy and not have the disease at all, this therefore suggests if the couple decide to have this fetus aborted, they are actually aborting a perfectly healthy child and thus this is an issue couples have to consider and decide whether or not to take the risk of an abortion. In a false-negative result the test would indicate that the unborn child is free of cystic fibrosis however in reality the child will be born with cystic fibrosis and this could harm the couple?s relationship or affect the couple?s health mentally as they now have to look after a diseased child with cystic fibrosis. However, the chance of obtaining false results is extremely low and very rare. The risks mentioned above have to be considered against all the benefits that these screening tests can bring to a newly born child such as immediate treatment and the benefits to a couple?s relationship as informed decisions can be made as using the results. In most cases, the test results are very accurate and consequently the benefits can outweigh the risks. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    - Lack of interest in sex - Avoiding other people - Thoughts of suicide Mania - General excitement - Feeling more important than usual - Unable, or don't want to sleep - More interested than usual in sex - Making unrealistic plans - Overactive, talking quickly - Irritable with other

  2. Peer reviewed

    Is there a relationship between the girth of a tree trunk and the percentage ...

    4 star(s)

    One meter at one aspect was often different at another aspect of the same tree due to the uneven ground. This difficulty was overcome by measuring from the highest point of the uneven ground at each tree, therefore creating a systematic approach, which was the same at each tree.

  1. Investigation as to whether the aspect of a wall affects the growth of lichens

    there was an alternative directional hypothesis. Step 1 Let n1 be the smaller sample and n2 be the larger sample Step 2 The data must then be ranked in order from smallest to largest values. If there are two or more values occupying the same rank, the average of the

  2. Parkinsons Disease

    This reduces the risks of any unknowns or mistakes and far fewer mistakes will be made than in using other treatments. Risks to humans 1) Unfortunately Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of using levodopa that are due to the building up of dopamine in the bloodstream.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    Social Model of Disability The Model of Disability A disability, under this model, is the reason why disabled people cannot interact fully within society and not as a result of the features in society that can be changed. Policy makers who think of disability in this way tend to focus

  2. Nature Vs Nurture

    There are, however, proponents of the idea that homosexuality is the result of the environment in which children are reared, specifically relating it to the behaviour of parents in rearing their offspring. However, once again the genetic and environmental views are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    If the enemy is unknown, developing protection is difficult. After the normal functioning of the genes was determined, the road toward progress in hereditary breast cancer became more open. Although the genes are quite different--BRCA2 is very large, for example--the proteins they produce seem to have very similar functions.

  2. Who Should Have Access To Genetic Testing Results? Should Genetic Testing Be Mandatory. ...

    The information about genetic illnesses will play an important role in deciding whether insurers provide cover and what price they will charge for insurance premiums. The Association of British Insurers had confirmed it would recommend that insurers should not ask people to take genetic tests.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work