• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetically Modified Organisms in New Zealand.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Year 13 Biological Issues Essay: Genetically Modified Organisms in New Zealand "Members of the public with no axe to grind probably want three questions answered: -What can go wrong? -How likely is it? -Are the benefits worth accepting the degree of risk?" NZ Herald Editorial, 19 Oct 2000 With respect to either plant crops or farm animals in NZ, describe how named organisms have been genetically modified so that they are different from their natural equivalents. Describe the likely benefits of the development and use of genetically modified organisms and discuss the possible risks. Give your reasoned opinion on whether the benefits are worth accepting the risk involved. Genetic modification is a historical fact. The modification and manipulation of an organisms DNA is not something which is a new idea or process. Genetic modification or engineering is defined as the deletion, change or moving of genes within an organism, the transfer of genes between organisms, or the modification of existing genes or construction of new genes and their incorporation into any organism. Traditional methods of genetic modification involved humans interfering with the process of natural selection, and artificially altering the success of a given allele (a certain form of a gene) ...read more.

Middle

Genetic tampering of organisms is natural, but is it in our best interests? Introducing a change into a biological system, either intentionally or accidentally, is likely to create effects on the whole system, many of which we will not be able to predict given the complexity of the system or control given the vastness of it. At the foundations of evolutionary life lies genetic variation. This variation is the fingerprints of our history and proof of our being. It is something which can't be artificially created, and if or when destroyed by cloning of a pest-resistant pine tree, or sheep which makes flawless wool, will be a loss which will not be taken into consideration by those who calculate net profits of the agricultural or forestry sectors. These are the real problems of genetic engineering. I can't talk about what any imaginary gods, or spirits may think of it. Now we must investigate the benefits of developing genetic technologies, and organisms. Genetic modification allows us to identify genes and understand their functions in research, also to study organisms, their characteristics and help to understand their diseases. We can investigate pests and diseases in animals and plants, and manipulate these to reduce the use of chemicals and pesticides in agriculture. ...read more.

Conclusion

Several separate experiments were done on the cattle one of which concerned inserting additional copies of the gene that produces casein, to increase the protein content of the milk. Another experiment involved disrupting the B-lactoglobulin gene to change the composition of the cow's milk. The protein produced by this gene causes lactose allergies from the milk in humans. The final experiment involved inserting a human gene that codes for a protein called myelin. This protein may provide a possible treatment for multiple sclerosis. All these experiments once again used somatic cell nuclear transfer. These two examples of genetic engineering on farm animals in New Zealand show that with the right precautions, genetically modified organisms can be a safe and successful way of producing a more beneficial situation. I can finally conclude that genetic engineering is a viable technology as long as barriers and safeguards are setup to separate genetically modified organisms from the natural forms of organisms and the rest of our biosphere and care is taken to minimise risks of DNA contamination. The benefits are very promising from the limited tools we have available now, and if we do not continue moving forward with the technology we run the risk of being left behind as techniques and knowledge relevant to genetic engineering become the intellectual property of others. The message is thus stated; proceed with caution. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    To expand on this concept, because X� is 7.97, and hence is greater than P = 0.05 (7.82), this signifies that in addition to the rejection of the null hypothesis, the actual hypothesis (in which the physical relative durations were predicted)

  2. The Benefits of using GM (Genetically Modified) plants outweigh the risks

    It is easy to see from the above why this is a widely debated issue especially due to the health risks imposed on us humans. Certainly vegetarians and vegans have found it offensive to put animal genes in plants.

  1. case study- cystic fibrosis

    Or just simply blonde hair and blue eyes! Some scientists think human cloning is a good matter because human being can control their evolvement, so that we can 'create' more artists, athletes, and scientists. If we can choose in this way, we can enhance human's achievement. The healthiness of infants Cloning can eliminate all the worrying regarding the child's health.

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    a strand of DNA such as a G-C replaced by A-T, then this will result in a different amino acid codon forming a different polypeptide. If one base pair is lost from the sequence there will be a shift along the DNA molecule producing different polypeptides.The flow chart below shows

  1. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    The decrease in predator numbers will cause the population of Littorina littoralis to increase, as there is less threat of predation, and so this cycle repeats. See figure 1.2 below. Hypothesis There is a significant difference between the shore zone and the abundance of different shell colours of Littorina littoralis.

  2. Study the increasing cases of food allergies and intolerances in an attempt to establish ...

    The organ was then identified as an endocrine gland. By the beginning of the 20th century, this technique had clarified the role of numerous organs. Researchers had the idea that the pancreas was an endocrine gland, they encountered obstacles when trying to use this method to show that the pancreas produced the hormone responsible for controlling glucose metabolism.

  1. Discuss the potential of genetically modified organisms.

    The transfer of DNA is done by various methods, such as direct injection of cells with DNA or literally shooting cells with DNA-covered particles from a special gun. Another widely-used method is to insert the DNA into specially modified bacteria or viruses that carry it into cells they infect.

  2. Genetic Modification, should we be scared?

    Of course, personal gain is a common enough reason for any scientist to be carried out and I?m sure without it we would be a lot further behind, but is this exploitation unjust? And what miracle foods are made?

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work