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Genetics Assignment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Anatomy & Physiology Genetics TASK 1 DNA is a nucleic acid formed from nucleotides. Individual nucleotides are comprised of three parts: a. Phosphoric acid (Phosphate H3PO4). This has the same structure in all nucleotides. b. Pentose sugar: These are of two types - Ribose (which occurs in RNA) and Deoxyribose (which occurs in DNA). c. Organic bases: There are four different bases which are divided into two groups - Pyrimidines - these are single rings with six sides, are cytosine and thymine in DNA. Purines - these are double rings comprising a six-sided and a five-sided ring, are adenine and guanine in DNA. The three components are combined by condensation reactions to give a nucleotide. By a similar condensation reaction between the sugar and phosphate groups of two nucleotides, a dinucleotide is formed. Continued condensation reactions lead to the formation of a polynucleotide. DNA is a double stranded polymer made up of two polynucleotide chains (known as a Double Helix), where the pentose sugar is always deoxyribose and the organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, but never uracil. The amount of guanine is usually equal to that of cytosine and the amount of adenine is usually equal to that of thymine. It is in the form of a double helix whose shape is maintained by hydrogen bonds. Each chain has a sugar phosphate backbone on the outside with organic bases on the inside. The two chains are held together by complementary base pairing and are antiparallel. DNA has a very large molecular mass in a double helix and is generally found in the nucleus. Since DNA is a code for the production of protein molecules, it is the sequence of bases in the DNA is a code for the sequence of amino acids in protein molecules. This relationship between bases and amino acids is known as the genetic code. There are 20 common amino acids used to make proteins and that the bases in the DNA must code for. ...read more.

Middle

This can be achieved through the manipulation of genes or 'gene therapy. Genes are functional parts of DNA. Genetic engineering usually involves the insertion of a gene or genes from one species into another species; this manipulation of DNA is permanent. This manipulation is the basis of how this technology works it can also be transferred to foods. Scientists are now looking how they can genetically modify food in the world to make it better and hardier than the food nature produces. Genetic modification has the potential to offer very significant improvements in the quantity, quality, and acceptability to our life and standard of living. In many supermarkets today, many vegetables, which would normally not grow in certain countries, can be bought easily. Plants are cloned after genetic (DNA) modification. These fruit and vegetables are then increasingly cloned to make them reasonably priced and to be able to deal with the demand for them. This allows consumption and greater profits, which in turn pushes our economy. Animals such as sheep cloned in order to increase wool production. While the best sheep produce wool and cloned to keep up the quality. A small number of sheep might also be cloned in order to produce meat This not only helps to increase the amount of milk and beef produced but also the amount of that will be bought and will assist another economical boost which mankind benefits from. These are some effects of genetic modification: GM Crops: A genetically modified food is a food product containing some quantity of any genetically modified organism (GMO) as an ingredient. Gene Therapy: newly developing technique used to treat inherited genetic diseases. The medical procedure involves adding a healthy gene into the cells of a patient's body, overcoming the effects of the defective gene. How does genetic modification effects quality of life and standard of living? Over the past few years, the quality of life and standard of living has been affected by the use of genetic modification all over the world. ...read more.

Conclusion

Stem cells are one of the most intriguing areas of biology today. But like many expanding fields of scientific investigation, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries or explanations. Stem cells have two important characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cells. First, they are unspecialised cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division. The second is that under certain experimental conditions, they can be induced to become cells with special functions such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Scientists primarily work with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which have different functions and characteristics that will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to obtain or derive stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 20 years ago. Many years of detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of how to isolate stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for infertility purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures and when they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, stem cells in developing tissues give rise to the multiple specialized cell types that make up the heart, lung, skin, and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease. It has been hypothesized by scientists that stem cell technology may be used in the future for treating diseases such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. ...read more.

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