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Germination Inhibitors

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Introduction

Hypothesis: Tomato Juice inhibits the germination of Lettuce seeds Null Hypothesis: Tomato juice has no effect and does not inhibit the germination of Lettuce seeds. Statistical Test: I intend to use standard deviation for the mean values for day 4, as this statistical test will allow me to measure the spread of the data. It is useful in comparing sets of data which may have the same mean but a different range. Standard deviation is the most common measure of statistical dispersion, measuring how spread out the values in a data set is. If the data points are all close to the mean, then the standard deviation is close to zero. If many data points are far from the mean, then the standard deviation is far from zero. If all the data values are equal, then the standard deviation is zero. From working out the standard deviation, I can then use this figure to evaluate the 95% confidence limits. This test is used for investigations involving looking for differences between different measurements of different samples. Confidence limits provide a quick way to determine whether there might be statistically significant differences between the means of two or more samples. ...read more.

Middle

that had germinated, whereas the rest of the seeds had not germinated. This also gives the wrong average. My results are statistically significant, as they reject the null hypothesis; I have found out that tomato juice does have an effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. I reject the null hypothesis, because the group results clearly proves that the more concentrated the tomato juice is, the more of the inhibition effect it has upon the germination of the lettuce seeds. My results show that the more diluted the tomato juice, the germination of the lettuce seeds take place at the normal rate, where the dormancy stage is broken. Less germination will take place in the presence of more concentrated tomato juice. The general trend is, as the concentration of the tomato juice increase, the rate of germination decreases. Biological Knowledge: The tomato juice contains an enzyme which inhibits the germination of lettuce seeds. Enzymes are protein molecules, having a three-dimensional globular tertiary structure. 20 different amino acids that occur naturally and make proteins have the same general structure. There is a central carbon atom, to which four groups of atoms are attached. ...read more.

Conclusion

Molecules with a similar shape to the usual substrate can attach itself to the active site, called an inhibitor. This prevents the normal substrate from attaching to the active site, and then forming a reaction. Molecules of the competitive inhibitors block the active site, where fewer molecules of the enzyme are available for the normal reaction, and therefore, the reaction rate is reduced. Some substances inhibit enzyme reactions by attaching itself to a different part of the enzyme. This distorts the active site enzyme so that the substrate can no longer bind with the enzyme. These substances are called non-competitive inhibitors. The shape of the non-competitive inhibitors can be completely different from the usual substrate and the inhibitor may remain permanently attached to the enzyme. The enzyme is therefore useless. In this way, the germination inhibitor achieves maintaining dormancy, and the seed is not allowed to germinate. When the inhibitor is removed, the germination process can occur. To classify the tomato, species are organised into biological categories, which the tomato comes under the biological kingdom "plantae". Species are grouped into biological categories of decreasing similarity. The largest category is the biological kingdom, of which there are five. Category Tomato Kingdom Plantae Phylum Angiospermophyta Class Dicotyledoneae Order Solanales Family Solanaceae Genus Lycopersicon Species Esculentum ...read more.

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