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Histopathology Laboratory - cell injury, cancer and Mitochondrial Disease Questions:

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Introduction

Histopathology Lab Task 1. (P) Cell injury: The term cell injury is used to describe a state in which the capacity for physiological adaptation is exceeded. This may occur when the stimulus is excessive or when the cell is no longer capable to adapt without suffering some form of damage (injury). Cell death: There are different types of cell death, one type of cell death is known as necrosis which is caused by external factors. Necrosis is cell death within a living organism. There is also apoptosis which is programmed cell death such as loss of webbing in between fingers in a human foetus. Also there is general cell death where cells in a dead organism undergo autolysis, this is where they self destruct due to the organism being deceased. Result of cancer from cell injury: Cancer harms the body when damaged (injured) cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors; tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. ...read more.

Middle

Task 3. (D) Mitochondrial Disease Questions: 1.) a. Georgina's main symptoms are tiredness, weak muscles, problems with balance, coordination and nerve functions. b. The nerve and muscle tissues are the most affected tissues. 2.) As Georgina's GP stated one of her main symptoms is problems with nerve functions, the table shows data on the oxygen consumption of some organs and tissues. The oxygen consumption per mass of tissue on the brain row is extraordinary high compared to other results in the table being 3.08 and the other data does not range above 2, since the brain oxygen consumption per mass of tissue intake is high this could explain why Georgina is having nerve problems due to her brain controlling the functions of nerves and the intake of oxygen being to high; also this explains why her mental development is slightly retarded. Georgina's GP also states another one of her main symptoms is problems with muscle functions, once again the table of data shows a result of 8.63 for muscles which is highly above other results featured in the table for oxygen consumption of organ / tissue; this high intake result may explain why Georgina is having problems with muscle function which is there for causing balance and coordination issues for her due to the correct control of muscles being required for good coordination. ...read more.

Conclusion

Passage of electrons between donor and acceptor releases energy, which is used to generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane by actively pumping protons into the intermembrane space, producing a thermodynamic state that has the potential to do work being in this case muscle contraction. The entire process is called oxidative phosphorylation, since ADP is phosphorylated to ATP using the energy of hydrogen oxidation in many steps. A small percentage of electrons do not complete the whole series and instead directly leak to oxygen, resulting in the formation of the superoxide radicals, a highly reactive molecule that can cause cell and genetic damage which is what is taking place with Georgina. 6.) Lactic acid is an acid produced by cells during chemical processes in the body that do not require oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). Anaerobic metabolism occurs only when too little oxygen is present for the more usual aerobic metabolism (oxygen requiring). Pyruvate can be made from glucose through glycolysis; pyruvate supplies energy to living cells through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) when oxygen is present (aerobic respiration), and alternatively ferments to produce lactate when oxygen is lacking (fermentation). Basically, reduced coenzyme produced in glycolysis can't be oxidized via the electron transport chain, so pyruvate which is the final product of glycolysis, will be reduced to lactate in anaerobic respiration. ...read more.

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